Communication Research Paper Examples

Because the communication discipline consists of diverse approaches, these communication research paper examples are written in diverse styles and from different points of view. Each research paper covers the topic in a comprehensive manner and to provides a perspective that students might find to be unique. This collection is no compendium of highlights from textbooks; rather, it reads more like a series of opening-day lectures, where the professor attempts to engage students with the course material.

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Collective Memory and the Media

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. Increasing Relevance of the Field of Research III. Media Production IV. Flashbulb Memories I. Introduction Memory, according to the Greeks, is the precondition of human thought (Samuel 1994). For psychologists, memory is also seen as a fundamental condition of consciousness. Not surprisingly, psychologists have constructed a variety of complex models of individual memory. However, memories also require distinct social and communicative frameworks, patterned ways of framing the flow of remembered actions, images, sounds, smells, sensations, and impressions. Without social frameworks to anchor and sustain memories, they would soon falter and fade. This idea is central to the contribution of the sociologist Maurice Halbwachs (1877–1945) who advanced the study of memory beyond the individual and the interests of psychology at the time through his notion of “collective memory.” He believed that for individual memory to thrive it was reliant upon continuous support from “frameworks of social memory” (1992, 182). II. Increasing Relevance of the Field of Research Memory is almost by definition part of the past, of course, yet in significant ways it is a central resource for making sense of the present and thus for extending the continuous present out to edges of the personal and collective horizons of time/space. An increasingly “presentist” perspective on memory is evident over the past thirty years with a growing premium placed on, and contestation of, memory in modern societies. Susan Sontag (2003, 86), for example, argues that the concept of collective memory is misleading, for it “is not a remembering but a stipulating: that this is important, and this is the story about how it happened, with the picture that lock the story in our minds.” Public discourses on our past have intensified in response to the renaissance of the heritage/museum industry, the technological, political, and cultural shifts affecting how, what, and why societies remember, and the near-globalization of discourses on the Holocaust (Huyssen 2003). In this context, the concept of collective memory seems an inadequate expression of how individuals and societies remember in the contemporary age. We now inhabit a new mediatized sphere of memory, in which individual and social memories increasingly intermingle or collide, partly as a result of the technological shifts in the modes of recording, archiving, and representing events. In response, new taxonomies of memory have emerged, particularly in the field of media, communication, and cultural studies, and there is now a critical intellectual mass so that an emergent field of Memory Studies is evident – and a journal of the same name being launched in 2008. These transformations transcend and transform “living memory,” i.e., afford an “experiential” engagement with a past reaching […]

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Rhetoric and Visuality

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. If visuality is understood broadly as the practices, performances, and configurations of the appearances, then the relationship between rhetoric and visuality is as old as the art of rhetoric itself. The ancients tied rhetoric to the world of mimesis, or the appearances, rather than to the realm of philosophical truth; this relationship has often unfairly relegated both rhetoric and the visual to subordinate status in the Platonic regime of knowledge (Kennedy 2001). Yet in the ancient tradition the visual is constitutive of rhetoric in a number of ways. The canon of delivery references visuality in its emphasis on gesture, movement, and performance (Kjeldsen 2003). The trope of ekphrasis (literally “bringing-beforethe- eyes”) and Aristotle’s notion of phantasia reference the ability of rhetoric to create images in the mind and cultivate affective grounds for judgment (O’Gorman 2005). Sight is framed as a powerful influence on persuasion by Quintilian, who divided images into the categories of pictorial images and mental images, and argued that the best orators created visions (visiones) in their listeners’ minds (Scholz 2001; Kjeldsen 2003). A contemporary discussion of the relationship of rhetoric to visuality would position itself in relation to the rise of visual culture studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The concept of visuality emerged in the 1980s as a key term of the poststructuralist turn in art history. Hal Foster’s germinal collection, Vision and visuality (1988), which featured the work of scholars such as Jonathan Crary and Martin Jay, notably framed visuality as the recognition that vision is socially constructed and historically constrained; how we see is not natural but tied to the historically specific ways that we learn to see. Jay (1996) usefully lists a range of concepts and theorists associated with the study of visuality, most importantly the gaze (Laura Mulvey), surveillance and panopticism (Michel Foucault), spectacle (Guy Debord), scopic regime (Christian Metz and Martin Jay), the mirror stage (Jacques Lacan), and the pictorial turn (W. J. T. Mitchell). The concept of the pictorial turn has been of particular interest to rhetorical scholars because it encourages scholars to revisit relationships between image and text, and marks a growing recognition that the visual is not reducible to the operations of language or text (Mitchell 1994). In the field of communication, scholars’ attention to the rhetorical aspects of visuality in this poststructuralist sense is relatively recent, though attention to the rhetoric of visual artifacts goes back several decades. The 1971 Wingspread Conference “Report of the Committee on the Advancement and Refinement of Rhetorical Criticism” famously argued that rhetorical critics should pay increased attention to visual artifacts, performances, and media. While scholars after Kenneth […]

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Conflict Resolution

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. Types of Conflict III. Types of Conflict Resolution IV. Alternative Dispute Resolution V. The Role of Communication I. Introduction Conflict resolution, in general, deals with ways of eliminating, terminating, or settling all kinds of conflict. Conflict can be broadly defined as a state of opposition, incompatibility, contradiction, or disharmony of statements, beliefs, goals, interests, or values among or within individual or collective actors, and the observable processes of dealing with these differences. The notion of conflict thus has two aspects: (1) the “state of opposition,” which can be established and analyzed without any reference to the behavior of the parties; for example, opposing interests or contradictory claims of the parties to a conflict, and (2) the actual “conflict behavior” of the parties; for example, physical force or verbal dispute. The first aspect relates to the causes or motives behind the conflict; the second to observable action. Conflict behavior may take two forms: physical action, as in the use of force, and communicative action, as in arguments or disputes. II. Types of Conflict Conflict is ubiquitous and not even restricted to social interaction. It can take place within individuals (intrapersonal cognitions or emotions), between individuals (partners, neighbors), between societal groups (religious or ethnic groups, social strata), and between more or less organized collectives (e.g., in industrial relations), most notably, states (international conflict and war). The objects of conflicts are manifold: scarce commodities, money, income and property distribution, power positions, individual or political goals, values, ideologies, religion, and so forth. Given this background and depending on research interest, various typologies of conflict have been proposed. Examples of simple dichotomous typologies are the distinctions of latent or manifest, antagonistic or nonantagonistic, and functional or dysfunctional conflict. An early and encompassing typology was provided by Dahrendorf (1959), who divided conflict according to the affected actors, reaching from the individual to the nation state into role, group, class, party, and international conflict. Holzinger (2004), concerned with the communicative resolution of social conflict, distinguishes three types according to the substance of conflict: conflict over facts, over values, and over interests. Game theoretic typologies classify various constellations of conflict according to the degree of opposition of interests: the level of conflict is highest in zero-sum games while nonzero-sum games (such as the prisoners’ dilemma or the battle of the sexes game) include also motives for common action. Coordination and harmony games, by contrast, do not include any conflict of interest (e.g., Rapoport et al. 1976; Scharpf 1997). III. Types of Conflict Resolution Like conflict behavior, conflict resolution may take the two basic forms of physical action and communication. Physical force may […]

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Deliberativeness in Political Communication

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. Normative Standards and Models III. Connecting Normative Theory to Empirical Investigation A. Measurements of Deliberativeness in Media Content B. Measurements of Deliberativeness in Citizen Talk I. Introduction Deliberativeness denotes a specific quality of political communication that centers around argumentative exchange in a climate of mutual respect and civility. Empirically, deliberativeness is a variable feature of political debate or discussion. From a normative point of view, the standard of deliberativeness can be used to evaluate political communication processes and settings, and to suggest possible ways to improve them. Deliberativeness has been studied in very different communicative settings, including parliamentary debate (Steiner et al. 2004), news media content and television talk shows (Ferree et al. 2002; Wessler & Schultz 2007), online discussion forums (Price et al. 2002), civil society organizations (Ryfe 2002), as well as everyday political talk among citizens (Mutz 2006). When deliberative discussion is not confined to arcane settings, such as decision-making behind closed doors, or private settings, such as the family, it is also called public deliberation or public discourse (for an overview of the empirical literature, see Delli Carpini et al. 2004; Ryfe 2005). II. Normative Standards and Models Standards of deliberativeness are an important ingredient in normative theories of deliberative democracy (for an overview, see Fishkin and Laslett 2003). Although it is by no means a uniform body of theory, deliberative democratic theorists agree on the central value of argumentative exchange in order to foster both the cognitive quality of political judgment as well as mutual respect and social cohesion between deliberators. If applied to the role of the news media in political communication, deliberative media content can be theorized to have salutary effects on both political decision-makers and citizens (Wessler, in press). Vis-a-vis decision-makers, political deliberation can foster active justification of political claims and decisions, and thereby at least help to avoid egregious mistakes. Vis-a-vis ordinary citizens, deliberative media content can serve as a repository of arguments and justifications as well as a model for deliberative behavior in everyday political talk. Conceptions of deliberative democracy contrast with other normative conceptions that are either less demanding in their normative standards or focus on different normative elements in political communication, or both. Habermas (2006) distinguishes (1) a liberal model, which places particular emphasis on equal rights for citizens and fair representation, (2) a republican model, particularly favoring political participation by active citizens, and (3) a deliberative model, prizing the formation of considered public opinions and the responsiveness of decision-makers to such opinions. Ferree et al. (2002) present a similar typology, adding a fourth variant called constructionist theory, which aims at privileging and […]

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Interview

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. The Situation of the Interview III. Standardization of the Interview IV. Interview Modes V. Sampling and Methodological Problems I. Introduction The term “interview” allows for several definitions. In this research paper, all forms of the socioscientific interview – also called survey – are dealt with. The interview – along with content analysis and observation – is one of the three basic empirical instruments of data collection. It is defined as a planned and systematic situation in which knowledge is gained by human subjects. The aim is to generate individual answers, which in their entirety lead to the clarification of a (scientific) question. This method has been in use since the end of the eighteenth century. Significant impulses for its establishment and development in the field of mass communication were set by several mainly sociological studies. These were conducted in both scientific (by a group around Paul F. Lazarsfeld) and applied (by George Gallup) contexts. Socio-scientific interviews are conducted to elicit subjective evaluations, judgments, attitudes or interpretations of an issue. Interviews are also conducted to measure both cognitive contents and behavior that cannot be observed. In mass communication, interviews are central to measuring the process, evaluating, and studying the effects of mass media use, as well as to examine the state and trend of public opinion. The interview’s basic idea is to give respondents the opportunity to express their personal views. In principle, this method is comparable to everyday communication. In an interview, however, this communication follows certain defined rules. Using specific linguistic stimuli, the respondents are motivated to react in a specific way (stimulus–response approach) – either in their own words or by using multiple-choice answers. The ruling principle is to measure communication by communication. This is at the same time the great strength and the great weakness of the method: the interview’s strength lies in its ability to measure a person’s mental state; its weakness is the respondent’s reactivity, which is caused by the communicative situation and the interaction between interviewer and respondent. An interview has two prerequisites: first, respondents must be articulate; second, they must be able and willing to provide information on the subject in question. Thus, they have to be conscious of their answers, or at least become conscious of them during the interview. II. The Situation of the Interview It is the social situation of the interview that sets this method apart from other forms of data collection. Interviewer and interviewee meet – either in person or via the telephone – in a seemingly everyday situation. The interaction, however, is not the same as in a normal conversation, where […]

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Discourse

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. History of the Concept III. Discourse and Language IV. Discourse and Society V. Discourse Analysis I. Introduction As a common term in English, discourse means any extended verbal communication, such as Jesus’s discourse with the people (John 6: 22–71) or, “The Disinherited Knight then addressed his discourse to Baldwin” (Scott, Ivanhoe). Discourse is lengthy but targeted speech between individuals or between an individual and a group. As a theoretical term, discourse gained in importance during the twentieth century, both in the relatively new discipline of linguistics and in the newer discipline of communication study, taking on two distinct meanings. First, it refers to stretches of communication beyond the small units that are examined with the traditional methods of linguistic analysis. Second, discourse directs attention to the social origins and consequences of communications. II. History of the Concept Discourse has a Latin root in discurrere, which itself is related to currere (“to run”). French derives the terms discourir and cours from these roots; English similarly derives “discursive,” “excursion,” “current,” and “courier.” The core meaning is movement of one sort or another, or running around. This idea is embodied in current uses of “discourse” to refer to communication as social interchange, and was also reflected in older occurrences of the term. Famously, Descartes’s Discourse on method (1637) is envisaged as a journey round the philosophical issues with which he was concerned. After the Renaissance, “discourse” was employed in philosophy to suggest a laying out of and meditation on theoretical matters. This usage echoes the idea of rhetoric as the moving back and forth between intellectual positions in order to communicate effectively. From the classical period onwards, rhetoric had been established, on the one hand, as a practical means of identifying and studying longer forms of human communication than individual signs – for example, exordium, narratio, argumentatio, refutatio, peroratio (MacCabe 1979). On the other hand, these forms of communication lent themselves to persuasive or strategic uses. In envisaging movements between each of these forms or stages of communication, and between study and practice, rhetoric served to develop categories of discourse for scholarly as well as other social communication. III. Discourse and Language In his Cours de linguistique generale (Course in general linguistics 1916; translated into English in 1959 and 1983), Saussure projected “a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life” (1983, 15). Despite his focus on the linguistic sign as such and the system by which specific utterances are underwritten (langue), he articulated a need to open up linguistics for analyses beyond individual signs and sentences. Following work by the Danish linguist, […]

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Dialogic Perspectives

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Multiple intellectual traditions exist within a dialogic perspective toward organizational communication. These intellectual traditions share a common set of theoretical inclinations that distinguish a dialogic perspective by focusing on discourse, holism, and tensionality (Stewart et al. 2004). First, dialogic approaches emphasize the centrality of discourse. A dialogic perspective focuses on both “little d” and “big D” discourse, with the former centering on language-in-use and the latter spotlighting enduring systems of thought, feeling, and action that structure the way organizational members make sense of and act in their social worlds (Fairhurst & Putnam 2004). Second, dialogic approaches are holistic as they emphasize the interplay among communication, context, action, and meaning. Third, dialogic approaches view human systems as riddled with tensionality, which requires theorists and researchers to articulate the tensions constituting a system and how individuals attempt to manage them. Dialogic perspectives are also marked by difference, as some intellectual traditions use dialogue as a descriptive term and others employ it as a prescriptive term (Stewart & Zediker 2000). A descriptive approach to dialogue views all human life, communication, and meaning-making as dialogic whereas a prescriptive approach views dialogue as a particular type or style of relating and communicating. Three intellectual traditions toward dialogue have emerged within organizational communication: (1) dialogue as a form of critical thinking and deliberation, (2) dialogue as a form of relational practice, and (3) dialogue as a form of discursive coordination. Dialogue as a form of collective thinking and deliberation is best reflected in the work of David Bohm (1990) and the MIT learning organization project (Senge 1990). Dialogue is conceptualized as a special form of meeting that occurs at particular moments when people gather to explore how their thought patterns control their interactions. Dialogue as a form of collective thinking allows individuals and groups to explore how each makes meaning in situations, to become aware of the incoherence in their thoughts, and to establish a common pool of meaning that facilitates learning. Dialogue is a prescriptive phenomenon that emphasizes the importance of setting ground rules to create safe space for conversation and mastering the abilities of inquiry and advocacy (Isaacs 1999). Organizational members who wish to create dialogue maintain a tension between accepting and rejecting their own thoughts, beliefs, and feeling through a process known as suspension. Dialogue as a form of relational practice is best reflected in the work of Martin Buber. Buber (1998) characterizes dialogue as an ability to stand one’s own ground while being profoundly open to the other. Dialogue facilitates organizational members creating I– Thou relationships where they enter into authentic communication with one another. Dialogue is a prescriptive form […]

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Conversation Analysis

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. Basic Principles III. Historical Sketch IV. Situating Context-In-Interaction V. Micro/Macro Distinctions and Relationships VI. Accessing CA and Future Directions for Research I. Introduction Conversation Analysis (CA) is a primary mode of inquiry for understanding how people talk with one another in everyday casual encounters, as well as in more specialized institutional settings involving bureaucratic representatives (e.g., medical, legal, educational, corporate, government). Research materials are naturally occurring audio and video recordings, and carefully produced transcriptions, of a broad range of interactions comprising the social worlds of diverse speakers, relationships, activities, and events. Examples are: telephone conversations and face-to-face interactions among family members, friends, acquaintances, and service providers such as telephone emergency hotlines; interactions among young children, parents, and daycare providers; patient–provider interactions; news and broadcast interviews. Giving priority to recordings and transcriptions is based on the recognition that detailed features and contingencies of interactional events cannot be intuited, nor adequately reconstructed, through field notes, interviews, or other forms of self-reported information. Interactions that are “naturally occurring” are those that would take place whether or not a recording device were present, and are not significantly influenced by researchers prompting the origination, content, or length of the social occasion. II. Basic Principles Speakers order their lives by collaboratively producing distinct courses of unfolding action. Discovering how these actions are sequentially organized is fundamental for explaining communication in everyday life. Through CA, priority is given to: (1) identifying how speakers utilize specific vocal and visible practices to manage the moment-by-moment design of turns-at-talk, and (2) the sequential and spatial environments within which actions routinely occur. Although CA has historically given primary attention to the ongoing orderliness of talk within single cases and collections of social interaction (e.g., see Atkinson & Heritage 1984; Sacks 1992), the embodied organization of gesture, gaze, and body orientation are basic and enduring concerns (e.g., see Goodwin 1981; Heath 1986; Beach 2007b). Central to CA are ongoing, informal, yet systematic procedures for conducting what is commonly referred to as data sessions. Colleagues gather to repeatedly hear and view recordings, closely examine transcribed excerpts, and provide increasingly refined observations about practices comprising the organization of specific moments and interactions being examined. A defining feature of CA is the descriptive rigor and explanatory force brought to recordings and transcriptions, a proof-by-exemplar methodology of analytic induction: social problems are not brought to the data, but emerge from grounded and systematic inspections of moments not prematurely dismissed as lacking order or relevance. Observations about the ordering of interaction must be anchored within the recorded and transcribed interactional data, specifically, how speakers make available to one another their emergent […]

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Compliance Gaining

This sample communication research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on communication at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Outline I. Introduction II. First Generation: Strategy Selection III. Second Generation: Goal Pursuit I. Introduction The term compliance gaining refers to interactions during which one participant attempts to convince a second to perform some desired behavior that the second otherwise might not perform. Seeking and resisting compliance are common within personal relationships: an adolescent asks her parents if she can borrow the family automobile; a husband ignores his wife’s hints to take out the garbage; a young man suggests to the person he has been dating that they see each other exclusively. Compliance-gaining episodes also occur within professional relationships: A mid-level manager asks her boss to reorganize which employees report directly to her; a dentist emphasizes the need for a patient to floss regularly; college students assigned to work together on a class project pressure a wayward member to complete his part of the project. Attempts to seek or resist compliance vary in several respects. The person seeking compliance (called the message source) may state explicitly what the other party should do or may only hint at the desired behavior. Message sources may or may not explain why the requested action needs to be performed, how it benefits particular parties, or how it can be performed without undue effort; they also may express indebtedness, promise rewards, reference rules, or threaten undesired consequences. The person whose compliance is being sought (called the message target) may comply almost immediately, or instead may ask questions, suggest alternatives to the requested action, offer excuses for not complying, or refuse without explanation. The target person may comply only so long as the message source is watching or may internalize a rationale and continue performing the desired behavior over time. Compliance gaining is an important area of study for three reasons. First, attempts to seek compliance can have important instrumental outcomes. When parents ask their adolescent child never to get into a friend’s automobile if that friend has been drinking alcohol, at some point lives literally may depend on the effectiveness of this influence attempt. Second, seeking and resisting compliance are acts that reflect and impact relational closeness, commitment, and satisfaction. Couples who frequently enact demand–withdrawal sequences, for example, report lower levels of marital satisfaction (Caughlin & Huston 2002). Third, compliance-gaining interactions reveal interesting individual, situational, and cultural variations. Different people often approach the “same” situation in distinct ways, and most recognize that different situations call for different approaches. Two generations of research have explored the ways in which individuals seek and resist compliance. II. First Generation: Strategy Selection The term compliance gaining is closely associated with a research program initiated by Gerald R. […]

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Persuasion

Persuasion is a communicative function that can be pursued in many different settings, ranging from face-to-face interaction to mass communication. Mass media persuasion takes three primary overt forms: commercial advertising (of consumer products and services), pro-social advertising, and political advertising. On each of these subjects, there is extensive empirical research and theorizing. Studies of consumer advertising have examined such questions as the effectiveness of different advertising strategies, the role of endorsements in consumer advertising, effects of varying the frequency and timing of advertisements, the role of visual elements, and so on (e.g., Kardes et al. 2005). Advertising is commonly one part of a larger marketing effort involving decisions about pricing, product distribution, market segmentation, sales force management, and so forth. Pro-social communication campaigns (sometimes termed “social marketing,” because such campaigns apply familiar marketing tools to pro-social ends) aim to forward environmental or charitable causes or to advance health-related ends such as encouraging people to exercise, quit smoking, and so forth. Research on health promotion communication has been informed by such theoretical approaches as the health belief model, the stages of change (transtheoretical) model of health behavior change, and the extended parallel process model (for collections of studies of pro-social campaigns, see Rice & Atkin 2001; Hornik 2002). Studies of political persuasion (especially, but not exclusively, in the context of election campaign advertising) have examined such subjects as the effects of negative advertising and the role of televised political debates in elections (see, e.g., Mutz et al. 1996). This research is linked with broader work concerned with mass media influences on public opinion generally (see Glynn et al. 1999), including such topics as propaganda and the interplay of interpersonal interaction and mass media as influences on the public (e.g., the “two-step flow of communication”). Beyond these three overt forms of mass media persuasion, advocates can also pursue persuasion through two other kinds of media content: news (by means of media advocacy) and entertainment (especially through entertainment education). “Media advocacy” refers to the strategic use of news media coverage to influence opinions on social or public policy questions. For example, in addition to using paid advertising, a health campaign might supply relevant news stories to local media outlets, or an advocacy group might seek to influence the framing of news stories concerning its particular issue. (For a practical guide to media advocacy, see Wallack et al. 1999). Especially in the developing world, the use of entertainment programming to carry persuasive messages (e.g., about population control or disease prevention) has been particularly notable. For example, a recurring television soap opera can be used to convey information about HIV/AIDS prevention. A number of these “entertainment education” campaigns have been especially effective vehicles for persuasion. (For a useful overview, see Singhal et al. 2004.) In addition to research and theorizing focused on specific contexts of persuasion (e.g., political advertising or changing health behavior), a number of more general theoretical perspectives on persuasion have been developed (for broad treatments of such work, see Dillard & Pfau […]

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