Forms of Intimate Partner Violence Research Paper

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Intimate partner violence is a phrase that refers to acts of violence such as unwanted physical or sexual force, withholding of or damage to material or property, and psychological abuse which are inflicted by one person against his or her intimate partner as part of an ongoing pattern of abuse or controlling tactics. Occurring within a domestic relationship that is legally or socially recognized, the complex dynamics of intimate partner violence defy any single classification. Intimate partner violence is a single category of adult domestic violence perpetrated by an individual against his or her intimate partner through numerous forms of abuse. Definitions differ between the legal and social perspectives and according to the population that has been victimized. Intimate partner violence is also referred to as domestic violence, spouse abuse, or battering; the terms are frequently used interchangeably. Wife abuse was the early feminist label for intimate violence but is rarely used today. Intimate partner violence does not include domestic victimizations of child abuse, child against parent abuse, sibling abuse, or violence committed by a family member other than an intimate partner or spouse. Workplace violence, sexual harassment, and commercial acts targeting women are also not included.

From a criminal justice perspective, intimate partner violence is an altercation of sufficient severity to justify law enforcement intervention. Although spouse abuse is the most frequently cited form of domestic violence that involves police action, most intimate partner violence is never reported to the police. Noncriminal emotional abuse and neglect will also come to the attention of law enforcement officers. Numerous forms of abuse are socially unacceptable and are present in a violent relationship but do not rise to the level of criminal violations. From a social perspective, intimate partner violence is a pattern of violent or coercive behaviors with which one intimate partner attempts to control the other. Multiple forms of violence frequently exist within dysfunctional homes through the efforts of a dominant figure to maintain power and control of family members. Response strategies differ significantly, depending on whether the intimate partner violence is identified as a criminal act versus a social wrongdoing.

Violence within the context of an intimate relationship refers to any and all violent and nonviolent victimization behaviors and crimes against the person, including rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. It is a broad categorization that describes an attempted or actual physical attack or unwanted sexual contact, verbal threat of physical or sexual harm, attempted or actual destruction of property, attempted or forcible entry of a home/apartment, or the removal of property without permission.

Standard categories of domestic relationships include married and previously married persons; those who live together as husband and wife; and persons who have a child in common. Some states expand on traditional definitions of domestic relationships through the recognition of persons who live under the same roof, regardless of affiliation. Substantial dating relationships may also be included in the classification of domestic relationship. Same-sex relationships and roommates may also constitute domestic partnerships. Both legal definitions and social recognition of a domestic violence relationship vary from state to state. How the relationship is defined is a critical factor that determines the availability of social services and legal responses to that population.

A common concern in all violent intimate relationships is the indication of a strong relationship between the excessive use of alcohol and/or drugs and domestic violence. Aggression has also been linked with psychoactive drugs such as barbiturates, amphetamines, opiates, phencyclidine, cocaine, and alcohol-cocaine combinations. Power inequality is among the many problems affecting dysfunctional relationships. Class differentials, jealousy, and poor communication skills may all contribute to domestic violence regardless of sexual orientation.

The major sources of information on domestic abuse come from arrest statistics and victimization studies. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) program, which began in 1929, collects information about crimes reported to the police and provides arrest statistics. The UCR program is being expanded to the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). NIBRS, which collects more comprehensive data on each reported crime incident, is being phased in to replace the UCR program. The National Crime Victimization Survey and the National Family Violence Survey represent the most significant examples of victimization studies.

The definitions that follow are general classifications under which various forms of intimate violence exist. The categories provide a cohesive framework for classifying intimate partner violence. These descriptions also provide insight into the various types of abuse that professionals encounter.

Defining Categories

Animal Cruelty

There is a recent renewed interest in the link between intimate partner violence and the killing, mutilating, or threat to harm a family pet, which is typically referred to as animal cruelty. Considered a severe form of intimidation and punishment for real or imagined injustices, there is a concern over an increased likelihood that the abuser will physically harm or kill the intimate partner. Animal cruelty is an intentional method of emotionally controlling and coercing the intimate partner. As a form of manipulation, the mutilation of pets is used to ensure that the partner stays in the home to protect the animals. National surveys conducted by various universities and the Humane Society of the United States since 2000 have found that 74 percent of pet-owning women in women’s shelters reported that a pet had been threatened, injured, or killed by their abuser. Common types of animal cruelty include bone breaking, burning, cutting off of ears or tails, drowning, torture, shooting, and stabbing the pets or livestock.

Battering

Initially battering was a term used to describe a particular form of domestic abuse, hitting. The contemporary use of the term is to describe a pattern of violence or coercive behaviors; it is further defined by including the term ‘‘wife’’ or ‘‘husband’’ to designate the partner that is being victimized (i.e., wife battering or husband battering). Humiliation, constant criticism, jealous accusations, and controlling involvement with family and friends are forms of abuse that constitute the pattern of battering. The actions of batterers reflect the tactics used by individuals and groups in positions of power to dominate and control. The control may be accomplished through economic forms such as withholding or denying access to money or other basic resources, or sabotaging employment, housing, or educational opportunities. Social isolation is quite common, including the denial of communication with friends and relatives or making communication so difficult that the victim chooses to avoid it. Prohibiting access to a telephone or transportation and denying needed health care are also examples. Verbal and emotional forms include intimidation, coercion, threats, and degradation. Physical and sexual abuse may occur. Individual acts do not constitute battering; it is the ongoing violence that characterizes battering, regardless of the form, marital status, age, or living arrangement of the intimate partners.

Death Ritual

The term death ritual refers to the escalating pattern of abuse by death threats, which may lead to homicide. It begins when the abuser talks about weapons, escalates to displaying weapons, and then brandishes weapons. This occurs while the abuser is making threats to the victim. The offender may actually take the partner to a secluded area and threaten to kill her there if the partner ever tries to leave the relationship. The more frequently these rituals are acted out, the more likely it is that the abuser will carry out such threats.

Destruction of Personal Property

Destroying or defacing the intimate’s personal property is a form of emotional abuse and may rise to the level of criminal conduct, depending on the severity of the act and the monetary loss to the victim. Victims are most vulnerable to destruction of personal property at the time in which the couple is separating or divorcing. These acts constitute emotional abuse because they are designed to cause fear and financial hardship and provide an outlet for the anger of the separated person.

Elder Domestic Violence

Elder abuse within the context of intimate partner violence refers to the neglect or battering of or acts of violence (including financial abuse) against an elderly person perpetrated by a spouse, ex-spouse, or intimate partner. The difficulty in determining the prevalence of elder abuse is that the definitions of who is an elder vary among states according to age and reporting practices. Crimes against the elderly include financial exploitation, fraud, homicide, misuse of restraints, neglect, physical assault, and sexual assault. Age definitions range from fifty-five (Alabama) to sixty-five (California, Maryland, and Nebraska), with the majority of states using age sixty as a measure (Jogerst et al. 2003). The protections against elder abuse are sometimes based on infirmity rather than age, such as a ‘‘vulnerable adult’’ category. Further complicating the data on elder abuse is that protective legislation sometimes combines child abuse reporting with elder abuse reporting. As of 1993, all states had legislated in some way against elder abuse in the domestic setting.

Spouses and intimate partners make up the largest category of individuals responsible for perpetrating elder abuse; approximately 30 percent of the abuse that is perpetrated against elders is at the hands of an intimate or partner according to the National Center on Elder Abuse. An early study found that in cases of spousal abuse among the elderly, perpetrators were equally likely to be either male or female partners (Pillemer and Finkelhor 1988). The National Center on Elder Abuse has estimated that for every reported incident of elder abuse, neglect, or self-neglect, approximately five go unreported. Elder domestic violence victims experience increased suicide idealization and depression.

Also called maltreatment, the abuse against an elder may be either active or passive. This refers to the difference between intentional abuse and benign neglect, some of which might be unintentional. Active neglect is a deliberate attempt by a caregiver to inflict injury or emotional stress. Passive neglect may include the lack of proper hygiene. The lack of heat, running water, electricity, or air conditioning may provide evidence that neglect is occurring. The majority of elders who are not institutionalized are living in a family setting. The elderly are most vulnerable to domestic abuse when they are frail or suffer from mental or physical illnesses. Heavy alcohol and prescription medication use by elders complicate recognition of and response to intimate partner violence, increasing the risk of domestic elder abuse. It is estimated that over two million Americans aged sixty-five and older are injured, mistreated, or exploited through elder abuse each year.

The categories of elder spouse abuse include those who have been victimized throughout their lives and have grown old; cases in which the abuse begins late in life, which may be associated with age-related conditions of dependency, retirement, or sexual dysfunction; abusive relationships that are entered though marriages late in life, including those centered around financial abuse; and situations in which a formerly abused spouse turns the tables on an infirm batterer. A pronounced decline in the well-being of an elder sometimes signals disease, which may be treatable. Depression, poor nutrition, and medication interactions may be factors that contribute to the elder’s vulnerability. During a domestic crime, an older person is more likely to be seriously hurt and possibly die from the abuse. Multidisciplinary teams are forming nationwide as the best approach to elder abuse prevention. The design of these multidisciplinary teams varies from state to state, but they share common prevention goals. Professionals share information among themselves as well as addressing the needs of the victim. The team approach offers a forum for balancing the different agency goals and aids in case resolution in the best interest of the elder. Adult Protective Services (APS) is the agency to contact when elder neglect or abuse is suspected. A local police department may also be contacted to intervene.

Emotional Abuse

This is the willful infliction of emotional anguish by threat, humiliation, intimidation, or other abusive conduct. Isolation, name-calling, being treated like a child, and abusive verbal attacks are examples of this form of abuse. Although acts of emotional violence do not rise to the level of criminal acts by themselves, they may provide evidence to support patterns of violence and strengthen the case of an abusive relationship. Emotional abuse is often linked with psychological abuse and is frequently present in all other forms of intimate violence.

Failure to Provide Care

A deliberate attempt to inflict injury or emotional stress may be by omission: for example, failure to provide needed food, medication, hearing aids, or eyeglasses for the spouse. A caretaker may be held legally responsible for a failure to act on a duty of care for an elderly or disabled partner when an intimate partnership or spousal relationship exists between them. Challenging the traditional response to elder abuse and abuse against persons with disabilities, the criminal justice system approach now includes aggressive prosecution through numerous statutes intended to protect vulnerable populations of adults. As of this writing, California is one state among six that has adopted criminal statutes that address the failure to provide care or to permit a dependent elder to suffer harm when a legal duty to provide care exists because of a special relationship.

Financial Exploitation

The illegal or improper use of an elder’s funds, property, or assets by an intimate defines financial exploitation. Theft, fraud, and unfulfilled promises of care in exchange for assets are examples of financial exploitation. Substantial monetary or property gain to another person is considered exploitation when the elderly victim consented to enrich that person as a result of misrepresentation, undue influence, coercion, or threat of force.

Gay Male Domestic Violence

Domestic violence is the third leading health problem facing gay men, second to substance abuse and AIDS. Gay and bisexual men are likely to deny or minimize the violence that is perpetrated against them. Gay male victims are less likely to report intimate violence incidents than are lesbian victims. Rates of battering victimization in gay male relationships range from 12 to 36 percent. The estimation is less than reported lesbian domestic violence and comparable to family violence among heterosexual women. Gay and bisexual male intimate partner violence is typified by physical, material, and psychological violence. It includes all of the forms of personal violence previously mentioned, such as destruction of personal property, kicking, hitting, humiliation, punching, psychological abuse, and slapping. Threatening to tell others that the victim is gay is singular to both lesbian and gay partner violence. Alienation and isolation of gay men situates them for partnership violence with few resources available to break the cycle. While it may be similar to battering in general, this form is differentiated by the minimization and shame felt by the male victim.

Reports compiled by the New York City Gay and Lesbian Anti-Violence Project are a major source of information relative to intimate violence committed by gay, lesbian, and transgender intimate partners. It estimates that partnership violence in the gay community occurs in 25 to 33 percent of relationships, which is consistent with the prevalence of violence in heterosexual relationships.

Homicide

Categories of homicide—the wrongful killing of a human being—include murder, manslaughter, and negligent homicide, with varying degrees of culpability. When a husband murders his wife, it is referred to as uxoricide. Femicide is a more general term used to describe the killing of a woman by her intimate partner, relative, or friend. A woman is nine times more likely to be killed by her spouse, an intimate acquaintance, or a family member than by a stranger, according to the report When Men Kill Women (Brock 2003). Brock’s analysis of male to female homicide found that over 60 percent of women murdered in 2001 were the wives, common-law wives, ex-wives, or girlfriends of their killers. The report further states that 327 women (nearly one woman per day) were shot and killed by either their husbands or intimate acquaintances during the course of an argument.

The risk of intimate partner homicide is increased fourfold if the abuser is unemployed. A batterer’s unemployment, access to guns, and threats of deadly violence are the strongest predictors of femicide. Major risk factors include a prior history of violence with increased frequency and severity over time, addiction to illegal drugs, engaging in death rituals, and homicidal and/or suicidal ideation. For gay and lesbian intimate partner homicide, a large disparity between the couple’s ages appears to be an increased risk factor.

Homicide rates of heterosexual intimates have been declining over the past two decades. The most pronounced decline has been in the number of men killed by intimate partner women; also declining to a lesser degree is murder of female intimates. Rates of homicide among gay and lesbian couples are unknown.

Husband Battering

Husband battering is used to clarify the subject of the intimate partner abuse in which a male partner is battered by his abusive wife. The characteristics of this form are found above in the general definition of battering. Constant criticism, humiliation, and the use of controlling tactics are common indicators of this type of abuse. Biting, kicking, hitting with objects, pushing, and slapping are also common. Serious physical abuse may occur but is rare. Intimate violence against men has remained fairly constant and is estimated to be at 15 percent of all domestic offenses, or 103,220 victimizations in 2001 according to the National Crime Victimization Survey. Common tactics of intimate partner violence against men include biting, groin attacks, kicking, physical attacks while sleeping, sleep deprivation, and throwing things at them, including hot coffee or food. Weapons used include shoes, phones, knives, and, in rare situations, guns. Despite official statistics that estimate husband abuse ranging between 6 and 10 percent of all intimate partner violence, male abuse by women is frequently trivialized. Males appear far less likely than females to report abuse by an intimate partner or to pursue prosecution if a report is made to the authorities, adding to the invisibility of this form of intimate partner violence. Denial of the abuse is a typical victim response.

Lesbian Battering

Lesbian battering is a pattern of violent or coercive behaviors perpetrated against an intimate partner in a lesbian relationship; the physical violence in the relationship concerns attempts at enhanced control over the thoughts, beliefs, or conduct of an intimate lesbian partner or to punish her for resistance to the control. Threats of ‘‘outing’’ the closeted female lesbian and exploitation of internalized homophobia complicate the violence within a lesbian partnership.

Same-sex partnerships are controversial, and lesbian battering in particular may not be socially or legally recognized in some states. Current criminal justice reporting practices do not specify the gender or relationship of the perpetrator to the victim; therefore, it is unknown whether or not the numbers include lesbian victims.

Partner abuse within lesbian relationships became recognized as a significant problem during the 1980s. Battering within same-sex relationships is often described as being at least as prevalent as it is for heterosexual couples and may be occurring at a rate as high as 50 percent within the population. Lesbians are characterized as resistant to addressing the problem of battering through underreporting and as being in states of denial.

The strides that have been made for female victims of domestic violence within heterosexual relationships have not translated into social service and policy responses for women victimized by other women through intimate violence, and response strategies are extremely limited. Lesbian partnership violence is different from heterosexual abuse mainly because it includes homophobia as a controlling tactic; unique also to lesbian relationships is the cumulative effect of living in a homophobic and heterosexist world. Lesbian partner violence explanations generally rely on the feminist model of power and control. This approach causes problems due to its oppression being rooted in male–female gender dynamics. Alternative explanations suggest multiple oppressions of power exist which affect lesbian domestic violence, including racism, sexism, and capitalism, besides heterosexism and homophobia.

Maltreatment

Typically associated with the unintentional injury or neglect of a person who has an infirmity or is impaired, maltreatment affects elderly intimates and adults with disabilities. This form of abuse may include over- or under-medication, misuse of restraints, and emotional or psychological abuse against the vulnerable adult.

Marital Rape

Marital or intimate partner rape is defined as unwanted intercourse or penetration (vaginal, anal, or oral) through force or threat of force or when the partner is unable to consent. Either gender may be victimized sexually, although women are the overwhelming majority of rape victims. Some states exempt married persons from criminal liability in cases of marital rape when the spouse is infirm due to age or medical conditions. A minor is presumed unable to give informed consent in a number of states; therefore, any sexual contact with a minor may legally be considered rape even if the minor and the adult are consensual intimates or dating partners, unless a legal exemption for age exists in that state. The age at which a minor may legally consent to sexual contact varies by state.

Physical effects of marital rape are bleeding, bruising, lacerations, or pain to the genitals, rectum, mouth, or breasts. When bruising or pain is documented along with injury to the face, neck, cheek, abdomen, thighs, or buttocks, the patterns of bruising might be suggestive of grab marks or the use of restraints. The victims may experience torn muscles, fatigue, and vomiting in addition to broken bones, black eyes, bloody noses, and knife or burn wounds. Behavioral indicators include intense fear, anxiety, or mistrust of the intimate partner, along with other indicators of sexual maltreatment. Depression without any other explanation or cause and self-destructive behavior or suicide attempts without a history of mental illness may also be suspicious for sexual abuse. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most common disorder seen in victims of rape.

Marital rape became a crime in all fifty states in 1993. However, as of this writing, thirty-three states still provide husbands with exemptions from rape prosecutions; for instance, an exemption may be granted if the wife is mentally or physically impaired, unconscious, asleep, or legally unable to consent. Marital rape is most likely to occur in relationships characterized by other forms of intimate partner violence. The majority of women who are raped by their intimate partner are also battered by that partner, and many report being kicked.

Official statistics place the frequency of marital rape at about 25 percent of all reported rapes. Pregnancy is a factor that places a woman at greater risk for both physical and sexual abuse. Miscarriages, stillbirths, bladder infections, infertility, and the potential contraction of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are specific gynecological consequences of marital rape. Other risk factors include drug and alcohol abuse by the abuser. As many as one in ten wives may have been sexually assaulted by their spouses at least once.

Intimate partner rape is typically divided into three categories: violent rape, force-only rape, and sadistic rape. The violent rape occurs when the intimate partner uses physical violence and causes injuries apart from those due to the rape itself. It includes punching or injuring with a knife. The rape becomes part of the violent physical attack used to intimidate and humiliate the victim or make her beg for forgiveness. A force-only rape is accomplished with minimal force to ensure compliance and to prevent the spouse or intimate partner from escaping or self-defending. Holding down the victim by his or her arms or wrists and a size differential between the perpetrator and victim are indicators. The sadistic rape includes additional actions by the perpetrator that are meant to degrade and humiliate. Torture, forced use of objects to penetrate the victim, and urinating on the intimate partner are examples.

To date there is no national study of marital rape that has included cohabitating gay and lesbian couples. It is difficult to approximate its prevalence, although several small sample studies have attempted to research the phenomenon. Researchers have estimated the prevalence of lesbian and gay domestic violence to be similar to that in heterosexual relationships, occurring in between one-fourth and one-half of all relationships.

Misuse of Restraints

While typically associated with elder abuse in institutional settings, misuse of restraints may also be identified as a problem in an abusive home as a manner of controlling or punishing any adult. Restraints are to be used only for the safety of an infirm individual, and never without a physician’s order. Misuse involves the chemical or physical control of an adult of any age or disability that is beyond a physician’s order or outside accepted medical practice. Physical restraints include any rope or cloth that restricts the movement of the person. If the use of restraints is used as a punishment or for the purpose of inflicting pain, prosecution may be a feasible option. Signs suggestive of the misuse of restraints include physical injuries such as gag marks from taping around the mouth, or rope burns on the ankles, wrists, neck, or torso that result from being tied up or restrained for long periods of time.

Partner Battering

This refers to violence between any two intimate partners. Its gender-neutral designation includes violence occurring within all adult intimate relationships regardless of sexual preference, marital status, or age of the intimates. Additionally, the use of the term battering suggests an ongoing complete pattern of violence behavior which conforms to the concept of battering.

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is characterized by the use of force or threat of force that may result in bodily injury, physical pain, or impairment. Physical abuse may be recognized through external or internal signs. External signs include but are not limited to bite marks, bleeding, bruises, burns, crying, marks, missing or pulled hair, ripped clothing, and wincing. Broken blood vessels around the eye may indicate strangulation. Internal signs of physical abuse include but are not limited to bone fractures, broken bones, dislocations, internal bleeding, and sprains. Physical abuse occurs through beatings, biting, hitting, kicking, pulling of hair, pulling the individual, punching, slapping, shoving, strangulation, striking, and throwing things. Physical abuse victimizes one person at the hands of the intimate partner. Acts of physical abuse are crimes against the person and more often than not rise to the level of criminal offense.

Psychological Abuse

Psychological abuse may include forms of emotional abuse as well as manipulative behaviors that cause the victim to become psychologically unstable over time. There are a range of behaviors that would constitute psychological abuse; these are relationship dependent and meant to take advantage of the vulnerability of the victim for the purpose of increasing reliance on the perpetrator. Examples include intentional attempts to confuse the person such as moving household items while insisting that they were always in that position, convincing the victim that family and friends are out to harm him or her, punishing the victim for insignificant transgressions, or staging false suicides for the victim to discover. Exploiting the intimate partner’s fears (i.e., exposing the victim to snakes or bugs) may constitute psychological abuse. Attacks on the personal property of the person, against pets of the victim, or sleep deprivation by repeated hang-up phone calls are meant to frighten and mentally incapacitate the victim. Indicators of this form of abuse are changes in personality, increased agitation or fearfulness, and extreme dependence, behaviors which were previously out of character for the individual. If the victim becomes confused or unable to distinguish between reality and fantasy, psychological torment may rise to the level of criminal neglect or abuse.

Sexual Abuse

This general category refers to nonconsensual sexual contact of any kind; examples include indecent touching or fondling, forced prostitution or pornography by an intimate partner, and marital rape.

Stalking

The crime of stalking is defined as conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity; nonconsensual communication; verbal, written, or implied threats; or a combination of these things that would cause fear in a reasonable person. Common behaviors include following, harassing, and threatening the victims. Violence appears to occur in 30 to 50 percent of stalking cases, with severe violence noted in approximately 6 percent of the cases. The most consistent indicator of violence are threats and a previous intimate relationship between the victim and the offender. Stalking is a serious criminal justice problem: The National Violence Against Women Survey estimates that 5 percent of women are stalked by a current or former spouse, cohabitating partner, or date at some time in their lives. Almost one in three victims sought counseling as a result of the stalking, 18 percent sought help from friends or family members, and 17 percent obtained a gun.

Woman Battering

Women are the most frequent victims of intimate partner violence. It affects women in every social and economic stratum; similarly, it may be perpetrated by persons regardless of their economic, education, or professional status. To signify the long-term suffering of these women, they are often referred to as survivors. Woman battering has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and is considered a major social problem. Women’s quality of life is severely affected by all forms of intimate violence. Health concerns that are associated with violence against women include gastrointestinal disorders, chronic pain or fatigue, depression, loss of appetite and eating disorders, and gynecological and urological disorders. Physical injury, psychological trauma, and death are associated with violence against women. According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, abused women experience more physical health problems and have a higher occurrence of depression, drug and alcohol abuse, and suicide attempts than women who are not abused. Domestic violence has also been acknowledged as a contributing factor for pregnancy and birth complications, sudden infant death syndrome, brain trauma, fractures, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, depression, dissociation, psychosis, and other stress-related physical and mental disorders.

The battered women’s movement beginning in the early 1970s placed partner abuse within the context of economic and social subjugation. Battered women’s shelters began to open in the United States in 1974; these gave safe refuge to women who had been abused. The criminalization of domestic violence emerged from this movement, along with other social service and policy responses.

Humiliation, constant criticism, jealous accusations, and controlling involvement with family and friends are forms of abuse that constitute the pattern of woman battering. The intervention process relies on the ability of responding social systems to send clear and consistent messages to batterers, including arrest, prosecution, and counseling. The theme in counseling is nonviolence, and the difference between anger and abusive action is expressly taught.

See also:

Bibliography:

  1. Brock, K. When Men Murder Women: An Analysis of 2001 Homicide Data. Washington, DC: Violence Policy Center, 2003.
  2. Burke, T., M. Jordan, and S. Owen. ‘‘A Cross-National Comparison of Gay and Lesbian Domestic Violence.’’ Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 18, no. 3 (2002): 231–257.
  3. Jogerst, G. J., J. M. Daly, M. F. Brinig, J. D. Dawson, G. A. Schmuch, and J. G. Ingram. ‘‘Domestic Elder Abuse and the Law.’’ American Journal of Public Health 93, no. 12 (2003): 2131–2137.
  4. Moore, K. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Domestic Violence: 2001 Supplement. New York: National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs, 2002.
  5. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence against Women in the United States. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003.
  6. Pillemer, K., and D. Finkelhor. ‘‘The Prevalence of Elder Abuse: A Random Sample Survey.’’ The Gerontologist 28, no. 1 (1988): 51.
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  8. Williams, R. [The Gay Men’s Domestic Violence Project Survey]. Unpublished raw data, 1998.

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