Marxian And Institutional Industrial Relations In The United States Research Paper

This sample Marxian And Institutional Industrial Relations In The United States Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This research paper presents industrial relations (IR)—the study of the capitalist employment relationship, with particular emphasis on employer/worker or “capital-labor” conflict. The field originated a century ago in the United States, maintaining an intellectual tradition and historical experience distinct from IR in other nations. The field was almost a purely American tradition until after World War II, when it was promoted and exported to Europe and developing countries, with U.S. cold war foreign policy an important impetus. The intellectual landscape and character of IR in other nations, with Britain a singular example with its heavy Marxist influence, is completely distinct and beyond the scope of this research paper. Kaufman (2004) provides a useful global history of IR. Two IR schools of thought are summarized—the original, institutional tradition of industrial relations (or ILE/IR for institutional labor economics/industrial relations) and Marxian-derived modern political economy, which, drawing on the work of historians of U.S. labor and basic Marxian thought about class relations, has a competing interpretation of both the employment relationship and class conflict. Both schools provide an interpretation of U.S. labor relations’ history and a policy agenda for solutions to employment relationship problems. It is important to note that institutional and Marxian analyses share important conceptual ground. They are both heterodox theories (i.e., they are outside of the post-1950s Anglo-American neoclassical mainstream). Both emphasize the social determination of human beings’ consciousness and norms of economic behavior (i.e., as opposed to seeing people as individual maximizing agents with preferences given and prior to any social influences), with institutions and power fundamentally shaping individual behavior and group economic outcomes. Most important, they share a belief that the default “market” situation in a “free” labor market is one of unequal bargaining power of capital over labor, an inequality that provokes conflict. They differ on understanding the nature and sources of power, especially in their interpretations of class conflict and of appropriate policy. This will all be explored in detail below. Finally, this research paper presents IR’s historical background. Class conflict is a historical phenomenon, with ebbs and flows and patterns of evolution and devolution. The origins of the field, the late coming of radical economic theory to the stage, and even a grasp of contemporary employment relations questions, in the view of the field, can be understood only historically. So, to situate our comparative analysis of institutional and Marxian schools of IR theory, we begin with the origins of IR in the industrial conflict that grew out of the American Industrial Revolution. Comparisons of the ILE/IR and Marxian views of the employment relationship, IR policy, understanding the decline of […]

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Twentieth-Century Economic Methodology Research Paper

This sample Twentieth-Century Economic Methodology Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The birth of the discipline of political economy is often dated to the eighteenth-century Scottish Enlightenment philosophers such as David Hume and Adam Smith. Of course, there were recognized antecedents dating back to Aristotle, the Spanish Schoolmen of Salamanca, and the French Physiocrats. Even the core idea of how private interest can be reconciled with public benefit through competition had a predecessor in Bernard Mandeville. But it was the Scottish philosophers who provided the foundation of classical political economy in the eighteenth century. The systematic study of political economy begins with the recognition of two seemingly contradictory observations about commercial life. The first observation is that individuals pursue their self-interest and do so as effectively as they are capable of doing. The second observation is that commercial society exhibits a strong tendency to produce outcomes that enhance the public welfare in terms of material progress and betterment of the human condition more generally. Squaring these two observations is how the discipline was born. The Methodology of Economics and Political Economy: An Overview Before we go further, I think it wise to stop and reflect on something unique about this disciplinary origin. Political economy and economics began with a reflection on an already existing set of practices in the world. It was, in this sense, in the quest to gain philosophical insight into the mystery of the mundane life around them that led these thinkers to study the economic system. In other words, a human practice was in operation that needed explanation. Economists did not invent economic life—whether as evidenced by the organization of the household, the harvesting of crops, the rise of manufacturing, or the free trade of goods and services across borders. Economic life happens, philosophers try to understand the manifestations of it—the changes in prices, the life and death of enterprises, the complexity of the division of labor, and the wealth and poverty of nations. From the beginning of the discipline there have been debates concerning the methods used by thinkers to gain philosophic insight into these matters. One way to reconstruct Adam Smith’s critique of the mercantilists is as a methodological critique of their understanding of the wealth of nations. Following the twentieth-century economist Fritz Machlup, this research paper will make a distinction between methods and methodology, where methods refer to the various techniques that economists employ in think-ing about a problem and offering an explanation, and methodology refers to the philosophic study of those methods and their epistemological status. Methods of analysis have constantly evolved throughout the history of the discipline, and methodology has shifted as well with changes in epistemology. In other words, the […]

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Economic Methodology Research Paper

This sample Economic Methodology Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Undergraduate students are often introduced to economic concepts using graphical expressions, and the expressions become the defining method of explaining and exploring the economic realm. The graphs become what the students perceive as “economics,” and this is what is meant as “methodology.” If you ask the students, “How do you do economics?” the answer would be based on the graphical examples offered in the classes. Methodology is a complicated way of saying, “These are the tools economists use to explain the economy.” Beginning students are offered very simple tools to explain the concepts of supply, demand, and equilibrium, but the ideas, as well as the graphs, are all part of the methodology. In most undergraduate economics classes, theory is offered to the student as a body of cohesive ideas set within a structure that seems internally consistent and mutually reinforcing. Such a monolithic view of theory may offer simplicity to a student who is just learning the basics, but this monolithic vision of methodology offers a false level of certainty based on an oversimplified version of ideas. Methodology used by economists today is very different from what was used 30 years ago, and what was used 30 years ago was very different from the methodology used by such great economists as Adam Smith and David Ricardo. The economic methodology that is taught in undergraduate courses today is the result of centuries of intellectual debate, and the origin of this body has been filled with differing thinkers often in violent disagreement with each other. It is in this history of methodology that the origins of undergraduate theory can be found, and an exploration of this history is both exciting and illuminating. There are generally two standard bodies of theory that are offered in undergraduate economics classes. The microbody of theory offers a vision based on the individual behavior of consumers and firms. These actors operate under a theory of rational self-interest that leads to stable social outcomes referred to as equilibriums. The second body of theory is the macroexploration of economic activity. In this body, the economy as a whole is examined, and differing reasons are offered to explain why certain events occur the way they do. Undergraduate classes suggest that the microeconomy is ruled by the prevailing forces of supply and demand, and the macroeconomy is explained by aggregate supply and aggregate demand. This research paper’s focus will be to explore where these theories and this methodology arose from. Present State of Economic Methodology Trying to describe what is the present state of methodology in economics is a lot like trying to summarize modern culture. Whatever statements are made are […]

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Economic History Research Paper

This sample Economic History Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Economic history is the series of social arrangements and physical processes by which human societies produced the material conditions of human life since the emergence of the human species. The discipline of economic history is the study of this series of arrangements and processes, although much of the discipline is devoted to the study of the development of modern economic growth. The reason for this is that modern economic growth brought with it sustained and accumulating increases in the per capita wealth of human societies. Before modern economic growth, any improvement in productivity led to an increase in the population, not an increase in the standard of living. In this research paper, human economic history will be examined through the lens of the discipline of economic history. First, theory is analyzed, and then empirical evidence. The theory and evidence sections are followed by policy implications, future directions for research, and a conclusion. Theory Neoclassical economic theory was largely developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries at the time of industrialization of the West. It is able to explain the increase of total output and the output per capita for societies with market economies experiencing modern economic growth. Simon Kuznets (1968) defined modern economic growth as sustained and faster growth of output per capita than the rate of growth in earlier periods of history. Neoclassical economic theory does not explain long-term growth or growth of societies where the market is not the predominant mechanism to allocate resources. Economic growth is caused by an increase in the amount or quality of capital or labor used in production, an increase in the ratio of capital to labor, and technological innovation, according to Robert Solow’s (1970) theory of economic growth. Douglass North (1981) added a theory of institutions to the theory to make it possible to analyze longer term growth, starting before markets and aiming to understand how societies came to have markets allocate resources. North thus theorized about how humans advanced from hunting and gathering to the discovery of agriculture and the subsequent rise of ancient civilizations such as ancient Greece and Rome, the rise and fall of feudalism in Europe, and finally the era of early modern Europe. With a theory of institutions, North could explain the distribution of the costs and benefits of economic growth. As a field of economics, the discipline of economic history has focused on the causes and effects of modern economic growth in the West. This is important because in fact modern economic growth arose in the West and then transformed the world, creating the industrial civilization that we live in today. What follows is a survey […]

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History Of Economic Thought Research Paper

This sample History Of Economic Thought Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Like economic history, the history of economic thought (HET) investigates economic issues in long-run perspective. Yet the two fields are distinct and should not be confounded: HET does not study economic facts such as the 1929 financial crisis but rather economic theories and economic literature. It focuses on the historical roots of economic ideas and takes into account a wide array of schools of thought; in conjunction with pure theory and the history of facts, it constitutes part of a comprehensive approach to the study of the economic bases of modern societies. Examples of research questions in HET include how economic issues (say, unemployment or growth) have been dealt with at different points in time, what intellectual debates they have stimulated, and what solutions have been concocted; how the meaning and interpretation of economic concepts such as involuntary unemployment or market equilibrium may have changed over time and how they have affected policy debates; and whether and how exchanges with neighboring disciplines or with currents of thought in philosophy have exerted an impact on the development of economics. A variety of approaches to the study of HET coexist, but it is possible to identify two broad tendencies into which most of them would fit: one more “theory oriented,” the other more “history oriented.” The theory-oriented approach, often referred to as history of analysis, emphasizes continuity between present and past reflection, so that earlier writers are seen as a source of inspiration that may assist today’s researchers in devising new solutions to current theoretical questions. Because economics is an approach to the study of society that endeavors to look beneath context-specific factors to discover underlying regularities in the behavior of individuals and communities, older economists who have already identified some of these regularities can provide useful insight despite the time distance that separates them from us. Earlier ideas have remained partly underdeveloped, and getting back to them can potentially suggest new directions for research. For some scholars, this means reviving alternative explanations and interpretations of economic phenomena, in a critical perspective with respect to any consensus that might exist today. In line with this methodological stance, historians of analysis primarily rely on the conceptual tools of contemporary economic theory. In contrast, the history-oriented approach emphasizes discontinuity between different stages of development in economics and the specificities of each of them. The idea is that an economic theory is embedded in its historical, sociopolitical, and institutional environment and constitutes a response to the problems of the day, so that it is incorrect to understand it in abstraction from them. Specifically, a “retrospective” interpretation of past economic theories in light of […]

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