Economic Aspects of Cultural Heritage Research Paper

This sample Economic Aspects of Cultural Heritage Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Cultural heritage is universal in that every culture has a heritage, but that heritage is unique to each culture or community. A building that may be slated for replacement in one region because it is mundane or out of date may be revered in another due to the cultural meaning attached to the building’s heritage. As a result, different preferences for cultural goods arise from the differences in culture. In addition, one rarely hears that we have “too much” cultural heritage; more heritage is universally desired, but protecting and creating cultural heritage is costly. Thus, there are many reasons for the study of the economics aspects of cultural heritage, including a desire to study the values that people have for cultural heritage as well as to inform the efficient management of cultural heritage assets. The economics of cultural heritage is, like many applied economic fields, the result of the application of microeconomic and macroeconomic concepts to the study of a particular facet of our lives, cultural heritage. Cultural heritage has both tangible and intangible aspects, and thus the economics of cultural heritage invokes methodologies used to study both market and nonmarket goods and services. This research paper begins with a definition of cultural heritage and discussion of the scope of the economics of cultural heritage and next provides an overview of the primary theoretical issues addressed by the economics of cultural heritage. The research paper then moves to discuss empirical examples and applications and policy implications. The fifth section offers emerging trends in the economics of cultural heritage and identifies gaps in the literature where opportunities for significant contributions to the economics of cultural heritage exist for twenty-first-century researchers. The final section offers a summary. What Is the Economics of Cultural Heritage? Definition Cultural heritage includes stories, collections, and other artifacts that are used to define and convey the specific attributes of a culture. Thus, cultural heritage is the set of tangible and intangible assets that help to uniquely define a community or nation. Vaughan (1984) indicated that a nation’s cultural heritage included three distinct types: the artistic, the natural, and the historical. Some heritage assets are constructed; these include architecture, archaeological sites, and monuments, which are tangible assets, as well as cultural goods such as art, songs, dance, and stories that may be intangible or ephemeral. In addition, some heritage assets are natural assets such as trees imbued with cultural meaning such as the California redwoods; these assets would exist without human intervention, but the values assigned to them are humanly constructed and help to define a culture. Thus, we may think of a country’s or […]

Political Economy of Violence Research Paper

This sample Political Economy of Violence Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Long-term economic prosperity requires the existence of secure property rights. A resource, in the possession of an individual, can be characterized as secure property if that individual can exclude others from exploiting its use. So, as the fundamental instrument of exclusion, who should have recourse to violence? In a world where violence is a recognized margin of competitive adjustment available to all community members, a world of unorganized violence, an individual’s exclusive right to use a resource is determined in large part by his or her ability to use naked violence to protect that resource from others. This fact creates an incentive for all community members to allocate scarce effort away from production and toward protection and/or predating on others—both of which undermine a community’s potential for prosperity. A solution to this inefficient outcome is to structure a world of organized violence, a world where violence is managed and access to it is limited to a subset of the community. In other words, community members can choose to structure a political economy. One such example is the state. In its simplest form, the state consists of a third party (e.g., a prince, king, queen, prime minister, and/or president) and constituents. The fundamental exchange undergirding the state involves constituents surrendering their autonomy, forgoing their rightful recourse to violence, and providing some sort of compensation (e.g., tax revenue) to the third party in exchange for secure property rights. Decisions regarding the projection of violence are reserved for the third party. Structuring a political economy also includes deciding on the number, character, and composition of those that the third party can call upon to violently enforce property rights (e.g., citizens militias, police, military and/or paramilitary forces). However, when deciding how to organize violence, the members of any community confront a dilemma. Centralizing too much violence potential in too few hands can be an inefficient alternative to a world of unorganized violence. The power disparity between the third party and its constituents can create an incentive for the third party to predate on its constituents and consequently destabilize its own property rights regime. Constituents can confront this challenge by dissipating the third party’s violence potential. This can be accomplished by choosing a more decentralized organization of violence—for example, one in which access to violence is granted to more individuals other than the third party and his or her forces (e.g., a citizens militia). However, this organization can weaken the third party and invite external and internal rivals to challenge the established order, thereby also destabilizing property rights. In other words, economic prosperity requires the presence of a third party that is powerful […]

Economics and Corporate Social Responsibility Research Paper

This sample Economics and Corporate Social Responsibility Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) constitutes an economic phenomenon of significant importance. Today, firms largely determine welfare through producing goods and services for consumers, interest for investors, income for employees, and social and environmental externalities or public goods affecting broader subsets of society. Stakeholders often take account of ethical, social, and environmental firm performance, thereby changing the nature of strategic interaction between profit-maximizing firms, on one hand, and utility-maximizing individuals, on the other hand. Hence, CSR is referred to as “one of the social pressures firms have absorbed” (John Ruggy, qtd. in The Economist, January 17, 2008, special report on CSR) and considered to “have become a mainstream activity of firms” (The Economist, January 17, 2008; Economist Intelligence Unit, 2005). Many (inter)national firms strive to achieve voluntary social and environmental standards (e.g., IS014001), and the number of related certifications in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries as well as in emerging market economies is constantly growing. Broad access to the Internet as well as comprehensive media coverage allow the public to monitor corporate involvement with social ills, environmental degradation, or financial contagion independent of geographical distance. A 2005 U.S. survey by Fleishman-Hillard and the National Consumers League (Rethinking Corporate Social Responsibility) concludes that technology is changing the landscape in which consumers gather and communicate information about CSR and that Internet access has created a “more informed, more empowered consumer … searching for an unfiltered view of news and information.” In light of (a) such “empowered” market participants able to discipline firms according to their preferences and (b) the public good nature of business “by-products,” policy makers must reevaluate the border between public and corporate social responsibility. In this context, Scherer and Palazzo (2008) note that “paradoxically, today, business firms are not just considered the bad guys, causing environmental disasters, financial scandals, and social ills. They are at the same time considered the solution of global regulation and public goods problems” (p. 414). In sum, CSR opens up a wide array of economic questions and puzzles regarding firm incentives behind voluntary and costly provision of public goods as well as the potential welfare trade-off between their market and government provision. While economic research had initially addressed the question of whether CSR possesses any economic justification at all, it has recently shifted to how it affects the economy, stressing the need of analytical machinery to better understand the mechanisms underlying CSR as well as its interaction with classical public policy. Therefore, the objective of this research paper is to identify, structure, and discuss essential economic aspects of CSR. At first sight, CSR appears to be at odds with […]

Economics and Religion Research Paper

This sample Economics and Religion Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The last two decades of the twentieth century saw an explosion of empirical as well as theoretical research into the relationship between religion and economic behavior. For the most part, this research ignores theological differences, focusing instead on behavioral differences associated with different religious identities. The causation runs both ways: Some studies analyze the effects of religious identity on various economic activities, and others analyze the effects of economic incentives on religious observances and institutions. Both of these lines of research have yielded strong results and have dramatically affected our understanding of the relationship between economics and religion. Prices and incomes are powerful incentives that invariably influence the actions of individuals, and the human capacity for creative rationalization contributes to the widespread evasion of costly behaviors, including costly religious strictures. Before economics became a modern social science, casual observation generated many stereotypes about differences between religious groups regarding economic success, differences that were often attributed to differences in religious teachings. Today these arguments are viewed with skepticism. Some are based on stereotypes that do not stand up to empirical scrutiny. Others are based on an imperfect understanding of the religious teachings to which they refer. Recent research suggests that some of the most important differences between religious groups can be explained not directly, by the religious strictures themselves, but indirectly by intervening variables that affect the economic incentives faced by individuals. To provide an overview of this subject, this research paper begins with a consideration of the economic incentives affecting a consumer’s decisions in the religious marketplace—that is to say, the demand for “religion.” It will then look at how this demand affects religious institutions and generates a supply of religious goods and services. Other topics will include the structure of this religious marketplace, the related “marketplace for ideas” in a religiously pluralistic society, and religious human capital. Finally, there will be a brief discussion of empirical findings for the effects of religious affiliation and intensity of belief or practice on selected economic behaviors. The Demand for Religion From the perspective of an individual consumer, religious expression is an economic good that must compete with all other goods for a share of the resource budget. It is not a good in the material sense but rather an intangible for which people express a preference by their willingness to spend time and money on its acquisition. Nor is it a good that can be purchased in a consumption-ready form. It belongs to the category of economic goods that must be self-produced by each individual. The consumer may buy goods and services that contribute to this end but must spend his […]

Queer Economics Research Paper

This sample Queer Economics Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Queer economics looks at a particular example of ‘the tight connection between markets and the emergence and shaping of social identities. What makes it “queer” is focusing on the role markets have played in the birth of lesbian-gay-bi-transexual identities with particular interest in how certain identities are queered (i.e., their social valuation is switched across a social boundary between straight-respectable and gay-abjected). Queer economics also goes the other direction— namely, from perceptions of sexual orientations in markets to the behavior of individuals and businesses in markets resulting, for example, in inequality in earnings according to sexual orientation. Conventional Economic Thinking An economist ignorant of queer theory might imagine measuring the economic impact of queer culture on the circular flow of national output/consumption by measuring how many units of currency per year of queer culture are bought and sold. But then, does one count only sales of new lesbian, bisexual, gay, transgender, queer/questioning (LBGTQ) books, art, movies, television, radio, theater, receipts at gyms, Internet sex sites, sex clubs, and bars? Does one include phenomena deriving from LBGTQ cultures but aiming at mainstream culture such as dance clubs, Madonna videos, sexy couture, and even very mainstream clothing such as Abercrombie & Fitch’s with a gay esthetic permeating its marketing through, especially, Bruce Weber’s photos (McBride, 2005, chap. 2)? How should one account for designs created by LBGTQ people or sales by stores catering to LBGTQ consumers but also selling to straight folks? This type of conventional thinking would see “the queer economy” as a distinct part of a nation’s gross domestic product. Yet this approach fails since boundaries for LBGTQ cultures do not exist, and this conventional thinking is challenged by the new field of queer political economy (Cornwall, 1997). LBGTQ cultures are more like queer glasses: They transform how people view all culture since they change what is permitted, what is valued, what is disparaged, and how we conceptualize our economic lives. We begin then by looking historically at the queering of social identities. This took place especially at the rollover from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries simultaneously with the redefinition of boundaries between classes and genders. This ver/mischung of the codifications of class, sexuality, and gender is of fundamental importance for queer political economy. Part I: Markets Contribute to Creation of Identities Based on Sexual Orientations: The Rise of LBGTQ Identities In the beginning, there were no sexual identities! Well, a bit more carefully, excluding earlier urban and cloistered, single-sex environments (e.g., see Boswell, 1980, on ganymedians in the eleventh century), there was no space in language and in thinking for what we label LBGTQ. As D’Emilio (1983/1993) notes […]

Economics of Property Law Research Paper

This sample Economics of Property Law Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Property law is the body of law that establishes the rules governing ownership rights over scarce resources. Ownership rights are multifaceted— often referred to as a “bundle of rights”—but in general such rights encompass three broad areas of control over a specific resource: the right to exclude (the ability of the owner to prevent others from using the resource), the right to use (the ability of the owner to use the resource in the manner he or she sees fit), and the right to transfer (the ability of the owner to assign ownership rights to the resource to another). The economic analysis of property law is primarily concerned with the effect of various property rules on the allocation of resources and whether such effects conform to the economic concept of efficiency.1 Equity issues are also addressed but to a lesser degree. The Economics of the Right to Exclude Ownership rights to a resource grant to the owner the ability to exclude others from using the resource. In contrast, an open-access resource, often labeled common property, is one that an individual has a right to use but cannot exclude others from using. The ability to exclude is probably the most commonly associated aspect of ownership—”that’s mine; you can’t use it.” A derivative power of the excludability right is that the owner can determine which other persons can use the property, either now or in the future, via some form of permission, such as a rental or licensing agreement. The Minimization of Conflict Costs Economists distinguish between goods and resources that are characterized by rival consumption (or use) and goods and resources that are characterized by nonrival consumption (or use). Rival consumption exists when consumption by one individual physically precludes consumption by another individual, such as the eating of an apple. Nonrival consumption exists when consumption by one person does not preclude consumption by others, such as the viewing of a fireworks display. A world of scarce resources characterized by rival use will inevitably lead to disputes over the control of such resources. If ownership rights are uncertain, costly conflicts arise in an attempt to gain or defend use of the resource. Resources are expended (including lives lost) in the actual conflict as well as in preemptive protective measures against attack. Conflict costs are particularly detrimental in that they are unproductive from a societal standpoint. Nothing new is produced; worse yet, existing valuable resources are destroyed—a negative-sum game. Thomas Hobbes (1651/1963) was one of the earliest political philosophers to emphasize the costs of a lawless “state of nature,” where ownership rights were determined by the private use of force. A […]