Science and Education Research Paper

This sample Science and Education Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Science education deals with the learning and teaching of science knowledge, practices, habits of mind, discourse patterns, and their relation to natural and man-made environments. Because of the importance of science to nations’ economic, environmental, and general well-being, much attention has been devoted to helping the public develop awareness and understanding of science and the role it plays in their lives and preparing the next generation of scientists. Science knowledge is typically one of the subjects assessed in large-scale national and international tests such as the National Assessment for Educational Progress (NAEP; Grigg, Lauko, & Brockway, 2006) and the Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS; Martin, Mullis, Gonzalez, & Chrostowski, 2004), underscoring the importance that is attributed to it. Broadly speaking, the goal of science education is the development of science literacy. There are two different perspectives on science literacy: as conceptual understanding and as participation in a community of practice. The following section presents these two perspectives. Science Literacy Science Literacy as Conceptual Understanding In 1990, Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science published Science for All Americans (1990), which presented the conceptual understanding perspective of science literacy and made the case why it was important that all people, not just scientists, become literate in science. Project 2061 defined science literacy as a thorough knowledge of the key concepts and principles in science; an understanding of the inter-dependency of mathematics, science, and technology; a recognition of the strengths and limitations of science; and the ability to use this knowledge for personal and social purposes. The same organization published Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993), which specifies what students should know and be able to do at the end of certain grades to attain science literacy by the end of high school. The National Research Council published the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996), which specifies not only science content standards, but also science teaching standards, standards for the professional development of science teachers, and standards for assessment in science education. Many countries have followed a similar process in developing their own science education standards. In the United States, the education department of each state then developed their own standards that often, but not always, draw on the national standards and benchmarks. These standards then guide or dictate, depending on the state, which science curricula can be used at various grade levels. Since the standards of individual states often conflict with those of other states and do not prioritize the various science topics, it becomes very difficult to develop curriculum that can be used in multiple states without expanding the scope […]

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Mathematics Education Research Paper

This sample Mathematics Education Research Paper  is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Difficult mathematics classes were once considered necessary to filter out untalented students to ensure that the country had the skilled scientists and engineers needed to promote the nation’s economic progress in a context of rapid social change and technological advancement. But today a strong mathematics education is considered a necessity for all students to be successful in their personal lives and in the workplace (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2000). Now, mathematics courses must function as a “pump instead of a filter” (White, 1988), moving all students successfully through the system. When considering how to reach the goal of “mathematics for all,” one must consider every facet of mathematics education. The field is deeply rooted in mathematics, but must also take into account findings from other disciplines such as psychology and sociology. Classrooms involve complex dynamic systems, and many factors that are often considered the purview of other disciplines play vital roles in the amount and nature of the student mathematics learning that occurs. Despite this complexity, three constructs are important in any mathematics classroom: curriculum, teaching, and assessment. The mathematics curriculum determines what content students study, while teaching involves interactions that shape the quality and the depth of the mathematics learned. Assessment provides important feedback for structuring and moving the learning process forward. Thus, attaining significant mathematics achievement “for all” requires a coherent curriculum, knowledgeable teachers employing effective teaching practices, and the use of assessments that accurately measure what students learn. This research-paper addresses curriculum, teaching, and assessment with the realization that the interplay among these factors and out-of-class factors such as socioeconomic status are as important as the factors themselves. Curriculum Curriculum can be interpreted in various ways. Generally curriculum refers to the content students are expected to learn. However, when individuals speak of curriculum, they may be referring to instructional materials, textbooks, state standards, grade-level expectations, or lesson plans. Regardless of how one defines curriculum, the reality is that all of these determine what mathematics students are given the opportunity to learn. The mathematics content students have been expected to learn has varied over time in response to many factors. For example, in 1957, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik I satellite forcing the United States to reconsider its perceived position as the leader in space technology. After Sputnik’s launch and with a concern for national security, President Eisenhower formally introduced the Space Race and teachers soon found themselves expected to prepare a new generation of engineers, scientists, and technologists. Consequently, during the 1960s, new mathematics curricula were designed and produced for this purpose. The term New Math refers to these curricular programs and they […]

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Writing Research Paper

This sample Writing Research Paper  is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Theories about how writers compose texts frame current research and pedagogy. Informed by LeFevre’s (1987) paradigms for writing, Applebee’s (2000) models of writing development, and Ward’s (1994) analysis of various dialogic pedagogies, this research-paper uses four frames to characterize research and practice in writing: emergent, cognitive, social constructivist, and critical. Emergent The emergent frame has its roots in a diverse set of sources: (a) phenomenological philosophy, (b) Bruner’s (1962) studies of cognition and creativity, (c) Chomsky’s 91965) view of language acquisition, and (d) the Paris Review interviews (Plimpton, 1963). Phenomenology is based on the idea that reality is organized and experienced by the individual through language. Bruner’s early work focused on the ways in which children’s learning developed through manipulation, representation, and symbolism of the external world, and Chomsky theorized that children acquired language through a series of successive gram-mars. The Paris Review interviewed 20th-century poets, novelists, and essayists about their work, highlighting the creative and often challenging process of exploration and discovery. The common focus was the writer finding voice and perfecting the craft of writing. Two major studies of writing instruction in the classroom, one conducted in Britain (Britton, Burgess, Martin, McLeod, & Rosen, 1975) and the other conducted in the United States (Applebee, 1981), found that writing assignments tended to be limited in scope and purpose and typical assignments were fill-in-the blank exercises or first-and-final draft reports written for the teacher. Britton et al. (1975) developed a model that suggests learning to write is a process of learning to use language in different ways, from everyday language to formalized language in new genres to inform, persuade, or entertain. Writing follows a developmental continuum in which younger students engage in more expressive writing and older students move toward transactional and literary writing. Educators enacted Britton’s ideas, emphasizing writing for multiple purposes and audiences other than the teacher. For example, freewriting could help students generate ideas, and teachers and students could discuss those ideas with instructors asking open-ended questions about texts and processes. Elbow (1981) argued for using writing groups in which readers pointed to effective features of the text, summarized the author’s ideas, described what they experienced reading the text, and showed their understanding by suggesting metaphors for the text. Instructors in this model are experienced coaches with whom a student can consult. Calkins (1983) documented the progress of a third grader for 2 years. She found that peer conferences, teachers talking about writing, and the use of model texts assisted the student in developing composing strategies and confidence. From this work, she recommended workshops that incorporated student choice of topics, writing for real audiences, developing revision strategies, and […]

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Reading and Literacy in Adolescence Research Paper

This sample Reading and Literacy in Adolescence Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Adolescent literacy learning is a major focus in early 21st century secondary schooling in the United States. Partly as an outgrowth of widely-publicized efforts to increase reading achievement in early grades, policy makers, researchers, and educational leaders are turning their attention to the specific needs of adolescent literacy learners. Adolescent reading achievement in particular is the current focus of considerable national attention, especially in regard to struggling readers. Both the International Reading Association (IRA) and the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) have issued statements and policy briefs calling attention to the need for effective literacy instruction for adolescents. The federal government recently announced the Striving Readers program intended to increase student achievement in middle and high schools not meeting state benchmarks and to further the knowledge base of instructional techniques most effective in promoting adolescent reading achievement. All of these activities point to the important role of adolescent literacy learning in the 21st-century curriculum. Although reading and writing in subject area disciplines such as history and science is an important aspect of promoting student learning, English language arts education is the primary content area for supporting adolescent literacy growth. This research-paper provides an overview of English language arts education for adolescents with a specific focus on reading and the study of literature. Writing instruction and the study of language are critical components of adolescent literacy learning as well. The intent of this research-paper is to provide an overview of reading and the study of literature in secondary language arts with the recognition that reading and literary study are strongly affiliated with writing and language study. The first section of the research-paper provides background on the specific needs of adolescent literacy learners. The second section discusses the theoretical base of reading and literature instruction and provides an overview of different pedagogical models used in secondary language arts classrooms. The third section of the research-paper discusses the types of texts students typically encounter in language arts education. The research-paper concludes with a discussion of promising developments and potential concerns in English language arts education. Recognizing the Needs of Adolescent Literacy Learners Supporting the literacy growth of teenagers begins with the recognition that students in Grades 6 through 12 have different needs than either elementary school students or adults. When students transition from elementary to middle school, it is generally assumed that they have learned basic processes of reading and writing. In middle school, they encounter new literacy demands, including the expectation that they read and write in content area disciplines such as social studies, mathematics, and science. Engagement An essential element in fostering adolescent literacy development is […]

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Language Arts in the Early Years Research Paper

This sample Language Arts in the Early Years Research Paper  is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. When Albert Einstein was asked late in life about schooling, he responded, “Accumulation of material should not stifle the student’s independence.” And he also believed that “advantage will come from how well [schools] . . . stimulate imagination and creativity” (Isaacson, 2007, pp. 6-7). The history of literacy learning and teaching in the early years reflects a struggle to address Einstein’s concerns. Research and theories about young children’s literacy development have been evolving for well over a century. Language, literacy, and early childhood scholars have discovered how young children come to know what language, including literacy, is and what it does as a result of a range of diverse and social literacy practices in their homes, communities, and schools. Exploration of the controversies concerning literacy learning and teaching in the early years is essential to teachers, teacher educators, and researchers. The teaching and learning of language and language arts are pervasive especially in preschool, kindergarten, and primary grades. Reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing (the language arts) are central to every subject. Written and oral language are the tools humans use to think about and to actively explore their worlds. Language forms are based on the functions language serves in society. Language development is taken for granted by the lay public. Since everyone uses language continually, it is easy for people to believe that they know how language works, how it is learned, and therefore how it should be taught. Thus, recommended changes to language arts teaching and learning are often controversial, and innovative literacy practices are at odds with honored status quo practices. To understand and take part in discussions about the controversies, teachers need to develop knowledge and understandings about the social, political, and historical contexts of young children’s literacy learning. As teachers appreciate the learning capabilities of young readers and writers and the influences of classroom contexts on learning, they build and expand on children’s literacy development and help young children become aware of their own contributions to their development. The Nature of Language and Literacy Development Oral and written language are symbiotic systems that humans use to communicate. Human language represents people’s thinking, knowledge, and emotions. Language is so necessary to human interaction that when people are deaf, they develop the language of signing. Although language and thinking are not the same, they are integrally intertwined and necessary to support each other (Vygotsky, 1978). Both oral and written language are flexible and change over time to meet the needs of an ever-changing society. Some people bemoan changes in language, claiming that change damages the beauty and meaning of language. Language change results […]

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Multicultural Education Research Paper

This sample Multicultural Education Research Paper  is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Multicultural education is an idea or concept, a process, and an educational reform movement that assumes America’s diversity should be reflected in the staffing, curriculum, instructional practices, policies, and values of our educational institutions (Banks & Banks, 2006; Grant & Ladson-Billings, 1997). Although the United States has always been diverse, between 1923 and 1965 restrictive policies limited immigration, particularly from countries outside of Europe. In the last three decades U.S. society has become increasingly both multicultural and multilingual. The 1990s witnessed a rapid influx of immigrants from Asia and Latin America, and a recent survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau estimates there are 11 to 12 million new immigrants. More than 20% of children in the United States are either foreign-born or have a parent who was born abroad. Although more stringent security and immigration screening was instituted after 9/11, refugees from conflict-ridden countries like Somalia, Sudan, Bosnia, and Myanmar continue to enter the country in steady numbers. Instead of moving to traditional gateway cities like New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, recent refugees are settling in midsized cities like Seattle, St. Paul, Atlanta, and Buffalo where the cost of living is more affordable. At the dawn of the 21st century, U.S. schools are more linguistically, culturally, religiously, ethnically, and racially diverse than ever before (Prewitt, 2002). Students of color (i.e., Black and African American, Hispanic and Latino, Asian American, and Native American) make up 43% of the national public school population. In some states, like California, and in the 20 largest urban school districts across the country, students of color constitute an overwhelming majority of the school population. Nationwide, 18.4% of school-age youth speak a language other than English at home. In some urban school districts, over 100 different languages are spoken. This demographic imperative is an important reason for developing and implementing multicultural education and making U.S. schools more responsive to the needs and perspectives of students from diverse groups and their families. Despite the changing face of America, however, students from diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds continue to experience unequal educational opportunities and often do not see the history, values, and cultural knowledge of their home communities represented in the school curriculum. The racial achievement gap between White students and African American and Latino students has remained stagnant. The average twelfth-grade low-income student of color reads at the same level as the average eighth-grade middle-class White student. According to the 2000 census, 88% of White students graduate from high school, but the rate for Hispanics is just 56%. There is a gender gap in many high schools as well. Girls continue to be underrepresented in […]

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