History Research Paper Examples

This collection of history research paper examples have been designed to serve as model papers for most popular historical topics. Each research paper covers the topic in a comprehensive manner and to provides a perspective that students might find to be unique.

The purpose of creating this list is for students to have available a comprehensive, state-of-the-research, easy-to-read compilation of a wide variety of history research paper examples. Our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students.

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Diasporas Research Paper

This sample Diasporas Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. When peoples of a culture are forced to leave their homeland for political, economic, social, or other reasons, some do not fit neatly into their new host countries. Many of these groups are classified as diasporas: communities not fully integrated into a settlement. Diasporas play an increasingly important role in politics, conflict, and trade as millions of people are detached from, yet emotionally linked to, distant homelands. The labeling of a minority population as a diaspora points to its origins, its displacement, and its ongoing connections to a far-off homeland. It suggests that members of the group remain distinct from the people among whom they live. Popular and scholarly use of the term diaspora has changed substantially over the centuries. A recent scholarly debate over just how widely the term can be applied has not yet reached a satisfactory conclusion. Early Use of the Term Over two millennia ago, the Greek historian Thucydides used diaspora to describe those driven from their homes during the Peloponnesian War (431– 404 BCE). But for other Greek speakers, the term had a much broader meaning; it referred to the dispersion of Greeks around the Mediterranean and into western Asia between 800 and 600 BCE. These were not refugees but merchants and colonizers who formed distinctive Greek settlements amidst peoples of other cultures. The word diaspora suggested that like seeds, migrants could travel great distances, yet once they took root, they would grow into familiar forms: Greeks scattered outside Greece nonetheless remained culturally Greek and proud of their origins. Perhaps because the term diaspora appeared in Greek translations of the Bible describing the exile of Jews, the meaning of the term has subsequently narrowed. Hebrew speakers initially preferred the term galut (exile) to describe Jews forced into exile after the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. But over the centuries, the term diaspora was applied so often, so consistently, and in so many European languages to Jews who had scattered while escaping from persecution that the earlier, broader Greek meaning of the term seemed almost completely forgotten. Theorists have used other terms for minority groups formed by forced migrations, calling them involuntary migrants, exiles, or refugees. They have suggested that the social, psychological, and cultural dynamics of ethnic group formation among forced migrants differ significantly from the dynamics among those who leave home voluntarily. In particular, forced migrants are believed to nurture especially strong connections to their homelands and to hope for their eventual return there. Such characteristics were central to the concept of the Jewish Diaspora. In the past two centuries, scholars have recognized a limited number of other forced migrations—notably enslaved […]

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Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Research Paper

This sample Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Dictionaries and encyclopedias are outgrowths of the human urge to decipher, systematize, explain, and learn. From cuneiform tablets to the World Wide Web, dictionaries have defined, standardized, and influenced the use of human language, while encyclopedias have mirrored and shaped knowledge. During their long history, dictionaries have reflected the history and origins of language, in addition to offering definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and spelling standards. But they have also been criticized for contributing to ethnocentrism and linguistic conformity. For their part encyclopedias have provided classification concepts to organize world knowledge, while simultaneously offering a snapshot in time of that knowledge. They have fostered learning by educating as well as edifying the reader. But encyclopedias have also been grounded in contemporary biases and superstitions. Rudimentary forms of dictionaries and encyclopedias have been used since ancient times. Compilations of bilingual word lists began as early as 3000 BCE in Sumerian culture and were later adopted by their conquering neighbors, the Akkadians, who then spread them to peoples from other parts of the Middle East. The Western tradition can be traced to the Greek glossai, which were used to interpret the classic literary works of Homer and the ancient law (Green 1996). The concept of the enkyklios paideia, the “general” or “rounded” education, goes back to Plato and Aristotle. In fact the first recognizable “encyclopedic” work is considered to be a collection of Plato’s writings by his nephew Speusippos that were used for instruction at Plato’s Academy. Dictionaries In addition to the Greek glossai, there is an early tradition of lexicography in Sanskrit, as well as in Chinese, Arabic, and Japanese. As early as 300 BCE, lexicons were written to aid in understanding the Vedas, or sacred Hindu texts. Related to these is the later classic of Sanskrit lexicography, the Amarakosha by Amarasimha (650 CE). The Chinese tradition stems from early glosses like the Erh-ya in second century BCE. The Shuo wen jie zi compiled by Hsu Shen around 120 CE was the first etymological Chinese dictionary. While Arabic word lists and vocabularies predated it, the first Arabic dictionary is considered the Kitab al’ Ain by Al-Khal?l ibn Ahmad written in the late 700s CE. But it is the Sihah by al-Jawhar? (d. 1003) that set the standard for the classic Arabic dictionary and the Taj al-arus by al-Murtada al-Zab?d? (d.1791) that incorporated numerous previous works and represents the culmination of a thousand-year tradition. There is a long history of Japanese lexicography stretching from the Heian period (794–1185) to the end of the Muromachi period (1333–1573). The beginning of the modern Japanese dictionary, however, is traced to the Rakuyoshu , published by the […]

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Diplomacy Research Paper

This sample Diplomacy Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Although ancient civilizations used emissaries and representatives in political negotiations, modern diplomacy began with ambassadorial practices in fourteenth-century Europe. Diplomacy has seen many different forms over the centuries, such as raison d’etat and realpolitik, but the essential concept remains unchanged. Present-day diplomacy, known as summit diplomacy, will dominate the politics of the future and provide a meaningful role in the development of world organizations. The term diplomacy refers to the conduct of relations between kingdoms, empires, states, and nation-states. Diplomacy has existed as long as humans have lived in organized societies. Early records from ancient civilizations around the world show that rulers regularly used emissaries to convey messages to one another and to negotiate agreements. But most historians would agree that modern diplomacy originated in Renaissance Italy. Rise of Modern Diplomacy During the fourteenth century the Italian city-state of Venice emerged as a major commercial power in Europe. The prosperity and strength of Venice depended on accurate knowledge of economic and political conditions in the states with whom the Venetians were trading. Venice stationed permanent representatives in foreign states in order to obtain reliable information. The Venetian system was quickly taken up by the other Italian city-states. During the Renaissance the Italian peninsula was divided into a number of city-states that engaged in constant intrigue and bouts of warfare. The need for accurate information encouraged the stationing of agents, or ambassadors, in both friendly and rival states. The use of ambassadors then spread to the kingdoms of Western Europe. The constant stream of reports from ambassadors resulted in the creation of bureaucracies, tiny by modern standards, to process and collate information, and to send out instructions. By the early eighteenth century practically all the states of Europe had foreign offices in order to manage and administer their relations with other states. The head of the foreign office became known as the foreign minister, and foreign ministers soon became key members of the cabinets of all European states, wielding great power and influence. As diplomacy became increasingly systematized, various commentators began offering books of advice on the best way to conduct diplomacy. Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince, first published in 1513, is only the most famous of many such volumes. Early Practice of Diplomacy Over the centuries many practitioners of diplomacy have left their mark on history. In the seventeenth century the French cardinal Richelieu, chief minister to King Louis XIII from 1624 to 1642, promoted a doctrine known as raison d’etat, which held that the good of the state was supreme, and that diplomacy must be conducted free of sentiment, ideology, or religious faith. Alliances must be forged and broken with the […]

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Animal Diseases Research Paper

This sample Animal Diseases Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Every disease that has caused epidemics and changed the philosophical traditions of societies throughout human history has originated in nonhuman animals and “jumped the species barrier” into humans. There is no meaningful separation between animal and human diseases when discussing the impact of disease on human history. It is important to emphasize that because humans are mammals, diseases found in other nonhuman animals, especially other mammals, often cross readily into humans. The most important diseases are infectious and highly contagious. Noncontagious diseases have had little or no impact on history. By definition, infectious diseases are capable of spreading rapidly from infected to healthy individuals. Infected individuals either die or recover fully within a short period of time; those individuals who recover typically acquire immunity against further infection by the same illness. Numerically, the single greatest documented epidemic in human history was an influenza outbreak that killed 40 million people at the end of World War I. The epidemic with the greatest recorded impact was the bubonic plague that killed over 25 percent of the people in Western Europe in the mid-fourteenth century. Despite a lack of documentation, however, the epidemics with the greatest overall impact both on human populations and history were the series of outbreaks that spread through the Americas shortly after contact with Europeans and their domestic animals. These epidemics spread through populations previously unexposed to the diseases of Eurasia, typically causing 90–95 percent mortality, especially within communities suffering from multiple traumas associated with colonialism—violence, slavery, subsistence collapse. Overall these diseases may have killed as many as 100 million people in the Americas. Prominent examples of infectious diseases that have crossed from other animals into humans include smallpox, cholera, tuberculosis, bubonic plague, and influenza. Although AIDS represents a major potential health problem in the modern world, it is contagious, but neither infectious nor acute. In recent years there have been panics over other animal diseases such as hoof-and-mouth disease, Hanta virus, and so-called mad-cow disease, which may not be a disease in the usual sense at all. These pathological conditions are trivial compared to the impact of the other diseases listed, yet they have received more publicity, perhaps because of ignorance and media-inspired fear, combined with the fact that most people do not understand how various diseases are transmitted. Most infectious animal diseases that jump to humans are caused by bacteria and viruses whose small size renders them highly volatile and transmissible as aerosols, hence more likely to be transmitted from one individual to another, which is the basis of contagion. A few diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness, are caused by protistans, single-celled eukaryotic organisms that […]

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Diseases Research Paper

This sample Diseases Research Paper  is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The study and treatment of disease is a neverending pursuit due to human evolution and our ability to adapt to and resist diseases over time. Research shows that disease increased as foraging stopped and humans began settling together in one place. Only in the twentieth century did epidemiologists recognize that hosts and germs adjust to one another, so symptoms (and medical diagnoses) change. Disease refers to many kinds of bodily malfunction: some lethal, some chronic, and some merely temporary. Some diseases, like cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, increase with age and result from disordered processes within our bodies; others arise from infection by invading germs and afflict children more frequently than adults because we develop immunities after early exposure to them. Symptoms of infectious diseases vary with time and place, owing to changes in human resistance and to evolutionary changes in the germs themselves. Consequently, written descriptions of ancient infections, even when quite detailed, often fail to match up with what modern doctors see. Hence, even when records exist, determining exactly when a particular infection first afflicted people in a given place is often unknowable. And no one can doubt that major disease encounters also took place among peoples who left no records for historians to examine. Nonetheless, and despite all such difficulties, some landmarks in the history of the human experience of disease are discernible from the deeper past, while in recent times the changing impact of diseases and medical efforts to control them are fairly well known. Diseases among Foragers and Early Farmers It is safe to assume that our remote foraging ancestors encountered many sorts of parasites, some of which, like the organism that causes malaria, were seriously debilitating. Sleeping sickness, spread by tsetse flies, was so lethal for human hunters that parts of east Africa remained uninhabited until recently, thus preserving vast herds of game animals that tourists now come to see. All the same, it is probable that our early ancestors were tolerably healthy and vigorous most of the time. That, at any rate, is the case among surviving African foragers as observed by modern anthropologists. Probably infectious organisms and their human hosts were fairly well adjusted to one another, having evolved together in tropical Africa; diseases of aging scarcely mattered since their lives were far shorter than ours. Since many of Africa’s tropical parasites could not survive freezing temperatures, infections probably diminished sharply when human bands expanded their range, penetrating cooler climates and spreading rapidly around the entire globe. Leaving African infections behind presumably increased human numbers and helped to sustain their extraordinary geographic expansion. But infections began to increase again when, in different parts of […]

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Plant Diseases Research Paper

This sample Plant Diseases Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The relationship between humans and the diseases that afflict plants is intertwined throughout history. Humans were often the ones who unintentionally introduced or spread certain types of disease among plants, which resulted in food shortages and famine. Thus the study of plant diseases remains crucial; whatever threatens crops threatens the health and survival of humans. Preliterate peoples as well as some literate peoples believed that spirits cause disease. Greek physicians dismissed this notion and instead insisted that disease had physical rather than supernatural causes. In the fifth century BCE, the Greek physician Hippocrates taught that an imbalance of fluids causes disease in humans, a claim that left the cause of disease in plants both ignored and unexplained. In the nineteenth century, the German botanist Anton de Bary, the German bacteriologist Robert Koch, and the French chemist Louis Pasteur swept aside the ideas of Hippocrates. De Bary, working with the potato, and Pasteur and Koch, working with cattle, demonstrated that pathogens (parasitic microbes) cause disease. The germ theory of disease is the foundation of modern medicine. The focus on human diseases should not deflect attention from plant diseases. Despite a perception to the contrary, plants suffer from more diseases than humans do and for an obvious reason. Plants colonized the land 410 million years ago, whereas modern humans made their appearance only 130,000 years ago. The pathogens that attack plants have had some 400 million more years to evolve new types by mutation than those that attack humans. Plants diseases often affected history when they provoked famines, but human actions also affected plants from very early times, when our ancestors learned to control fire and began to burn dry vegetation to help their hunting. Subsequently, humans carried seeds to new locations when they began to plant fields of grain and other food, and eventually they carried favored crops all around the world. They also spread plant diseases unintentionally together with weeds, as well as animals and insect pests. Plants and humankind, in effect, interacted so closely that they began to evolve together. Even as nomadic foragers, humans depended on plants for sustenance. The rise of agriculture in western Asia some 10,000 years ago and its spread throughout the world have wedded the destiny of humans to that of crops (domesticated plants). Whatever has threatened crops has threatened the health and survival of humans. Diseases of the Staple Grasses Grasses such as wheat, rice, and rye have been the staple crops that have sustained populations over the centuries; thus the diseases associated with them have great impact on humans, potentially affecting not only food supplies but their health as well. Wheat Rust […]

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Plant and Animal Domestication Research Paper

This sample Plant and Animal Domestication Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. One of the greatest survival techniques of the human population was the domestication of their environment. Domestication, based on human preference, changed the natural behavior and characteristics of the plants and animals they chose to cultivate. The earliest examples of plant and animal domestication date back hundreds of thousands of years, but the environmental effects of those lifestyle changes are still apparent today. Domestication of plants and animals is the most fundamental subsistence change in human history. For 100,000 years or more, humans subsisted only by foraging and hunting. Then, near the end of the Pleistocene epoch (1.9 million–10,000 BCE), people in a few regions of Earth independently began to control and breed the species they had hitherto only collected. Between 12,000 and 5000 BCE food producing began to replace food collecting. In the process humanity gained unprecedented control of the natural world, and human populations grew geometrically. But adaptive success was purchased at the price of ecological disruption, new infectious diseases, and accelerated environmental destruction. The theory that domestication took place in a single limited area and then spread by diffusion throughout the rest of the world has been discredited. It now appears that plant and animal domestication occurred independently and repeatedly within six or more primary “hearths” in southwestern Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, peninsular southeastern Asia, Eastern Asia, Mesoamerica, and Andean South America. Later, more limited domestication took place in secondary “hearths” such as southeastern North America and southern Asia. Locating these hearths is easier than determining why such profound adaptive changes occurred within them. The ethnographic (relating to the study of human cultures) record indicates that, as a rule, foraging peoples do not farm unless new circumstances make foraging difficult or impossible. Therefore, the transformations of food-collecting systems into food-producing ones at the end of the Pleistocene epoch may have been caused by worldwide climate changes, mammalian extinctions, sea-level rise, and apparent human population increases that also occurred around that time. Archeologist Mark Cohen (1977) argues that, although prehistoric foraging populations grew throughout the Pleistocene epoch, the pressure of population on food resources became critical only when climatic and environmental changes at the epoch’s close undercut existing foraging economies. As environments became increasingly less productive, population pressure forced foragers to intensify and expand their subsistence activities. According to economic historian Frederic Pryor (1983), such intensification might have included taming animals and tending plants in order to (1) reduce the risks arising from overreliance on increasingly unreliable wild foodstuffs, (2) supplement wild foodstuffs available primarily in one season with cultivated foodstuffs available in another, (3) utilize the labor of marginal members of societies who were unable to […]

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Psychoactive Drugs Research Paper

This sample Psychoactive Drugs Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Trade in drugs began to flourish in the late 1400s, when European coastal cities played a major role in determining whether a drug would become a global commodity. Drugs were ideal money makers, some with addictive effects that ensured constant demand. Taxes placed on such drugs often funded a nation’s politics, and revulsion to this eventually led to nineteenth-century prohibitions and regulations. Psychoactive drugs became global commodities with the expansion of oceanic trade from the late fifteenth century. In many ways the diffusion of drugs resembled that of germs: that which had been confined to one region, continent, or hemisphere spread around the world. The principal difference was that drug production and commerce were deliberate and profit motivated, while the introduction of germs was not. Only from the late nineteenth century onward did political elites reevaluate the lucrative international trade in drugs and begin selectively imposing restrictions. The most important drug commodities produced and traded in both hemispheres were alcoholic and caffeinated beverages, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, and various coca products. Psychoactive exchanges occurred in both directions, from west to east and east to west. Tobacco, coca, and cacao originated in the New World and spread to the Old. Liquor, wine, opium, and cannabis originated in the Old World and spread to the New. Sugar cane, another important transplant from the Old World, was used to make rum. Sugar also sweetened bitter-tasting psychoactive products, among them chewing tobacco, coffee, tea, chocolate, and even opium. Not all local or regional drugs became global products. For reasons that ranged from spoilage problems to cultural prejudice against their effects, use of khat, kava, betel, peyote, mescal beans, and many other substances remained confined to one hemisphere or the other. For a drug to become a global commodity, it first had to catch on in one or more of Europe’s seafaring imperial nations: Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, Great Britain, and France. Only their merchants, planters, and seamen had the means to ensure that the drugs they valued became worldwide trade goods and cash crops. Tobacco as a Model Tobacco offers the clearest example of European adoption and global dissemination of a novel psychoactive drug. Tobacco use and cultivation had originated in South America and spread northward, reaching the upper Mississippi valley by 160 CE. It also had taken root in the Caribbean, where in 1492 two of Columbus’s crew observed Taino Indians smoking tobacco. Later explorers and missionaries often described native smoking rituals. But in Europe, early interest in tobacco centered on its possible medical uses. The Seville physician Nicolas Monardes (1493–1588) recommended that tobacco be applied topically to aches and wounds; swallowed to kill […]

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W. E. B. Du Bois Research Paper

This sample W. E. B. Du Bois Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The writings of W. E. B. Du Bois, including the first study of urban blacks in the United States, had a huge impact on African American communities during the 1900s. Du Bois believed in Pan- Africanism and played a major role in founding the NAACP. Although he left the United States for political reasons, he remained (and still does nearly fifty years after his death) an influential presence. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was one of the most important African American leaders in the United States in the first half of the twentieth century. He made significant contributions as a journalist, sociologist, historian, novelist, pamphleteer, civil rights leader, and teacher. Among his many publications are sociological studies as well as studies of the slave trade (1896), John Brown (1909), and Reconstruction (1935). Du Bois was born on 23 February 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. In 1884, he graduated from Great Barrington High School as valedictorian of his class. In 1888, Du Bois graduated from Fisk College in Nashville, Tennessee. It was while in Tennessee that Du Bois first experienced overt racial discrimination. Du Bois earned a second bachelor’s degree (1890) and a master of arts degree (1892) from Harvard University. From 1892 to 1893, he studied at the University of Berlin, where he was greatly influenced by the socialist scholar Eduard Bernstein (1850–1932). Du Bois remained sympathetic to Marxism for the rest of his life. In 1895, W. E. B. Du Bois was awarded the first doctorate to be granted to an African American by Harvard. His doctoral dissertation, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870, was published in 1896. It constitutes a pioneering application of economic analysis to history. Previous studies of slavery had given little attention to slavery’s indissoluble connection to the cotton market. After receiving his doctorate from Harvard, Du Bois served as a professor at Wilberforce University (1894–1896) and as an assistant instructor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania (1896– 1897). But he is best known for his long association with Atlanta University, where he was a professor of economics and history from 1897 to 1910 and served as the chair of the sociology department from 1934 to 1944. Between 1897 and 1914, Du Bois completed multiple sociological investigations of African Americans, including The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study (1899), which is the first case study of an urban African American community ever conducted in the United States. Du Bois’s views on civil rights clashed with those of another prominent African American leader, Booker T. Washington (1856–1915). Washington urged African Americans to accept discrimination for […]

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Dutch East India Company Research Paper

This sample Dutch East India Company Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The Dutch East India Company (VOC), founded in 1602, consisted of sixty companies aimed at monopolizing the spice trade, expanding Dutch colonial influence, and reducing competition from other commercial powers. The VOC did not merely monopolize world trade; it acted as the sole representative of Dutch political power in the East Indies for nearly two hundred years. Historians have identified the Dutch Republic as the first modern economy, while the Dutch East India Company (or VOC, the acronym for Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) has, deservedly or not, been styled the first modern corporation. In the context of the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648), the general expansion of trade and shipping, and, to a lesser extent, the missionary impulse of Calvinism, Dutch overseas expansion was spurred by a powerful combination of politico-economic, commercial, and religious motivations. The first shipping to Asia in 1595 was followed by the creation of “pre-companies” in various cities of the northern Netherlands trading to the East. To curb internal competition and forge a military-diplomatic tool against the Spanish and Portuguese colonial possessions, these pre-companies were merged into a United East India Company. On 20 March 1602, the States General issued a charter, which would be continuously renewed until 31 December 1799, when the possessions of the VOC were taken over by the Dutch government. In the “age of mercantilism,” the VOC was given a monopoly on all shipping from Africa’s Cape of Good Hope through the Strait of Magellan at the tip of South America, effectively covering the entire Indian Ocean basin. The board of directors, or Gentlemen Seventeen, consisted of eight representatives from Amsterdam, four from Zeeland (Middelburg), one from each of the four smaller chambers (Rotterdam, Delft, Hoorn, and Enkhuizen), and a final member selected by Zeeland or one of the smaller chambers. The charter also granted the company delegated sovereign powers, including the right to appoint governors, build forts, maintain armies and fleets, and conclude treaties with or wage war against indigenous rulers. A central Asian rendezvous and trade emporium was established at Jakarta, renamed Batavia, on the island of Java in 1619. Batavia was the seat of the High Government, the Governor General, and the Council of the Indies, coordinating activities of the company settlements in the East. The VOC divided its trading operations in Asia into three categories, with their relative significance indicated by their respective designation. The core consisted of spice-producing areas or trade emporia, such as the “governments” of Ambon, Banda, Cape of Good Hope, Coromandel, Makassar, Northeast Coast of Java, Taiwan, and Ternate, where the company enjoyed trade as an outcome of its own conquest. A second category […]

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