History Research Paper Examples

This collection of history research paper examples have been designed to serve as model papers for most popular historical topics. Each research paper covers the topic in a comprehensive manner and to provides a perspective that students might find to be unique.

The purpose of creating this list is for students to have available a comprehensive, state-of-the-research, easy-to-read compilation of a wide variety of history research paper examples. Our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students.

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Dutch Empire Research Paper

This sample Dutch Empire Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. In 1602 the founding of the Dutch East India Company, which became the largest company in the world at the time, literally created an empire. The empire focused mostly on trade, however, and less on colonization; many Dutch colonial possessions fell to the British in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Rebellion from Japanese-occupied Dutch East Indies during World War II ultimately brought the empire to its end. Toward the end of the sixteenth century, Dutch ships started to explore the waters beyond Europe. Because of their rebellion against their Habsburg rulers, the Dutch no longer were able to operate as traders in the Portuguese and Spanish overseas empires or obtain non-European products in the Habsburg-controlled Iberian ports. In order to reduce the risks of conducting trade in Asia, the United East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC) was founded in 1602. United East India Company (VOC) The VOC was the first commercial venture in the world financed by anonymous shareholders with the aim of conducting business over a lengthy period of time, not just financing one trip or conducting business for one year. Within six months about 6 million guilders were collected. The company was made up of six local chambers, and according to its share in the capital outlay, each chamber was allowed to send representatives to the seventeen-member board of directors. The company received a monopoly from the government for trade and the right to declare war and conclude treaties with individuals and states in the whole of Asia. During the first two decades of its existence, the VOC needed government subsidies to stay afloat, but after 1620 its activities were increasingly more profitable. Trading between the various regions in Asia accounted for most of these profits. In 1619 the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) was founded as the pivot in the trade between the Dutch Republic and its trading partners in Asia. The governor general in Batavia concluded treaties with local rulers for the exclusive delivery of spices such as pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, and cloves. In addition the company traded in opium, Chinese porcelain, tea, silk, and Indian cotton cloths. In order to obtain these goods, the company sent large of amounts of cash to Asia. Over time the VOC grew to become the largest company in the world, employing more than 40,000 persons at the height of its existence. Yearly, more than sixty East Indians left the Netherlands for a year-long journey to Batavia, using the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope as a stopover. During the course of the eighteenth century, however, competition from the British East India Company, the French, and […]

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Early Modern World Research Paper

This sample Early Modern World Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Historians sometimes refer to the era between the premodern (or medieval) and late modern eras as the “early modern world.” The world during this time was increasingly united by the projection of European power abroad, especially in the Americas. Although early modern Europeans still had little knowledge of, let alone influence over, the inland regions of Africa and Asia, the links engineered and dominated by Europeans made all the world a stage for fundamental historical processes. Historians debate, or pass over in silence, the problem of determining the precise starting and ending dates of the early modern world and have produced only the vaguest consensus. Roughly, the era of the early modern world began during the fifteenth century with the Timurid (relating to the Turkic conqueror Timur) and Italian cultural renaissances. The year 1405 serves as a convenient starting date because it marks not only the death of Timur, the last great Central Asian conqueror to join farmers and nomads into a single empire, but also the first of the naval expeditions to the “Western oceans” by the Chinese admiral Zheng He (c. 1371–1435). The era might be taken to end in the late eighteenth century with the French and industrial revolutions, both European events of global consequence in the late modern world. The uncertainty of this periodization derives in part from the concept of an early modern Europe, with its own uncertain chronological boundaries, and in part from the unconsidered way in which both phrases entered historical scholarship. Origins of the Concept Although conceptually the phrase early modern world is an extension of early modern Europe, the initial histories of both phrases have some surprises. The earliest known appearance of early modern world occurs in Willard Fisher’s “Money and Credit Paper in the Modern Market” from The Journal of Political Economy (1895). Although Fisher writes, “We all know that the system of bank credits and bank money, which was introduced into the great commercial centers of the early modern world, has now attained a quite marvelous development” (1895, 391), the geographical sense of his statement is strictly, if implicitly, European. On the other hand, the phrase early modern Europe first shows up twenty years later, in Dixon Ryan Fox’s “Foundations of West India Policy” in Political Science Quarterly (1915). Fox remarks, “It was now realized by students of colonial history that in the Caribbean [the “West India” of the article’s title] might best be traced the application of those principles which formed the working basis for the old empires of early modern Europe” (1915, 663). Ironically, the phrase early modern Europe first appeared in the Caribbean, in the […]

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Earthquakes Research Paper

This sample Earthquakes Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Earthquakes are experienced as shockwaves or intense vibrations on the Earth’s surface. They are usually caused by ruptures along geological fault lines in the Earth’s crust, resulting in the sudden release of energy in the form of seismic waves. They can also be triggered by volcanic activity or human actions, such as industrial or military explosions. Earthquakes can occur almost anywhere in the world, but most take place along particularly active belts ranging from tens to hundreds of miles wide. An earthquake’s epicenter is the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the source or focus of the earthquake. Most earthquakes are small and cause little or no damage, but very large earthquakes, followed by a series of smaller aftershocks, can be devastating. Depending on the location of the epicenter, these earthquakes can have particularly disastrous effects on densely populated areas as well as the infrastructure that supports them, such as bridges, highways, apartment buildings, skyscrapers, and single-family homes. Earthquakes can destroy our built-up environments and the essential systems we rely on for our lives and livelihoods. They also have the potential to cause landslides and tsunamis (giant ocean waves that can flood and destroy coastal regions), both of which can have devastating effects on people and communities. The social and economic consequences of earthquakes can be vast, and recovering from them can take many years. Early Explanations Humans have come a long way in their understanding of the causes of earthquakes. At first, myths and legends explained processes beneath the Earth’s surface. Thinkers from the time of the Greek philosopher Anaxagoras (500–428 BCE) to the German canon and councillor Konrad von Megenberg (1309–1374) in the late Middle Ages believed, with slight variations, that air vapors caught in Earth’s cavities were the cause of earthquakes: thus, Thales of Miletus (c. 625–547 BCE), the founder of Ionian natural philosophy, was among the first to attribute earthquakes to the rocking of the Earth on water. The Greek philosopher Anaximenes of Miletus (585–526 BCE) thought that periods of dryness and wetness were responsible for earthquakes. Aristotle (384–322 BCE) described earthquakes as the consequence of compressed air captured in caves; his ideas were used to explain meteorological phenomena and earthquakes until the Middle Ages. Moved by the devastating earthquake at Pompeii and Herculaneum on 5 February 62 (or 63) CE, the Roman statesman and philosopher Seneca (4 BCE–65 CE) backed Aristotle’s thinking. Plinius (23–79 CE), the Roman historian and author of Historia naturalis, considered earthquakes to be underground thunderstorms. When classical antiquity was rediscovered by the Christian Occident around 1200, significant parts of Greek ideology were merged with Christian ideas. Albertus Magnus (1193–1280), a German […]

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Ecological Imperialism Research Paper

This sample Ecological Imperialism Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Ecological imperialism is the process by which colonizers carried the plants, animals, and diseases of their homeland to new lands, albeit sometimes unintentionally. Changing a new environment to more closely resemble a familiar one was often critical to the establishment and success of the imperialists, most prominently Europeans in the Americas, Africa, and Oceania. Imperialism is usually considered to be a political and sometimes an economic or religious phenomenon. But it also has an ecological side: imperialists have intentionally, more often unintentionally, and always inevitably carried with them plants, animals, and microlife from their lands of origin to their new lands. Where imperialists have been successful not simply in conquest but also in settlement, they have done so with the indispensable assistance of the life forms they brought with them. The most successful imperialists have been those who have, as much by chance as intention, changed the flora and fauna, macro and micro, of their new environments to be much like their old environments. Immigrant life forms often have done poorly in their new homes: for instance, attempts to permanently establish the European nightingale in North America have never succeeded. But these immigrants, moving into environments where organisms were not preadapted to prey on or effectively resist them, have often done well indeed. Examples of Ecological Imperialism Ecological imperialism is as old as human migration. For example, the ancestors of the Australian aborigines arrived in Australia from the Malay Archipelago fifty or so thousand years ago and some millennia afterward imported their dog, the dingo—the continent’s first domesticated animal—which figured importantly in their success there. The best examples pertain to European expansion because the Europeans were the first to habitually cross oceans, that is to say, to travel between continents with sharply contrasting biotas (flora and fauna). The human invaders’ attendant organisms spearheaded alterations in local ecosystems essential for the biological and economic success of the humans. This can be considered under three headings: crops, animals, and diseases. Crops Europeans learned to eat the foods of America and Oceania (lands of the Pacific Ocean) but generally preferred their own food, planting wheat, barley, rice, turnips, peas, bananas, and so forth in their colonies wherever they would grow and as soon as was practical after arrival. These crops were often particularly important in enabling the imperialists to live in numbers in areas where indigenous crops did not grow well. A good example of a successful European crop is wheat, which prospers where Native American cereals do not and provided the nutritional and economic foundation for large populations in the temperate-zone grasslands of North and South America and Australia. Animals European imperialists […]

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Cultural Ecology Research Paper

This sample Cultural Ecology Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The anthropological field of cultural ecology asserts that societies develop on paths related to their environmental circumstances: culture is often a mode of adaptation. Since the mid-twentieth century when it emerged, cultural ecology has developed varying foci and assumed several different varieties. Whether nature influences culture, or culture effects the environment, is a debatable topic among cultural anthropologists. Cultural ecology in a wide sense denotes a concern with the relationship between human culture and the natural environment, and in a narrow sense a particular perspective on this relationship that was first developed by anthropologists such as Julian Steward (1902–1972) and Leslie White (1900–1975) in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Steward and White were both critical of the historical particularism that dominated American anthropology in the early decades of the twentieth century through the influence of Franz Boas (1858–1942), Alfred Kroeber (1876–1960), and their students, who rejected any attempt to explain cultural phenomena by reference to noncultural factors such as evolution or environment. Although the differences between Steward and White were considerable, they converged in the ambition to revive an evolutionist and comparative perspective on culture, and in seeking explanations of cultural forms in technological and environmental factors. Both had a materialist orientation, influenced by Marxism, and tended to regard the social and ideational aspects of culture as accommodations to its technoenvironmental aspects. Steward emphasized what he called the culture core, that is, those features of a society most closely associated with subsistence, as an adaptation to specific environmental conditions. He then classified societies with similar cultural cores into categories that he called culture types. Finally, he sorted these culture types into a series of stages based on their complexity or level of sociocultural integration, which later provided the foundation for his student Elman Service’s (1915–1996) influential evolutionary sequence: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. Steward offered a theory of multilinear evolution, distinct from nineteenth-century unilinear evolutionism. By this he meant that societies could develop along different paths depending on their environmental circumstances. White also argued for an evolutionary perspective on culture as a mode of adaptation, but focused on technological advances in the harnessing of energy as the standard by which to measure evolutionary progress. Whereas Steward’s evolutionism was specific and relativistic, White’s was thus general and universalistic. Steward’s and White’s cultural ecologies prepared the ground for the emergence, in the 1960s and 1970s, of an ecological anthropology influenced by cybernetics, general systems theory, and the rapidly developing science of ecology. Much of the research conducted under this label has been concerned with the relation between local populations and their natural habitats, interpreted in terms of human adaptation to an […]

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Economic Cycles Research Paper

This sample Economic Cycles Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. From the beginning of the widespread use of money in China, circa the year 1000, to the trade and budget deficits of the twenty-first century, economic cycles have plagued most of the world. Economists have argued endlessly and inconclusively about exactly what caused these booms and busts, and which governmental policies might counteract their troubling effect on human lives. In recent centuries, economic cycles—years of boom leading up to a sudden bust followed by a period of hard times—began to prevail in most of the world. Why that irregular rhythm exists remains a matter of debate among economists and politicians. In the deeper past other disasters—crop failure, epidemics, and the ravages of war—often afflicted our ancestors, and years of plenty and years of hunger affected almost everybody in course of a lifetime. But the modern pattern of boom and bust arose only when the use of money became widespread and introduced a powerful new variable into human behavior. From Crops to Coins The widespread use of money first occurred in China about the year 1000, after the government decided to collect taxes from peasants in coin instead of demanding a share of the harvest, as they had before. Paying in coin required millions of ordinary persons to find something to sell, and the effect at first was to launch a sustained boom since buying and selling among scores of millions and across hundreds of miles along China’s two principal rivers rewarded efficiency and increased specialization of production. Wealth multiplied accordingly, and Chinese officials soon resorted to printing paper money to supplement coinage and make large-scale payments easy. Surviving records do not show whether anything like modern patterns of boom and bust developed in China, but we do know that when Mongol conquerors invaded and eventually founded the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368), paper currency ceased to circulate, since prolonged warfare provoked reckless printing of paper money and made it worthless. That bought on so big a bust that the Chinese relied entirely on coins for centuries thereafter. As far as historians can tell, ancient Greece and Rome never experienced modern forms of boom and bust, though when Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great, 356–323 BCE) captured the Persian treasury and began to spend its contents lavishly, he provoked a boom of sorts. It was prolonged by his Greek and Macedonian soldiers who founded scores of cities throughout the empire and put a vastly increased amount of money into circulation. During the early Roman Empire (30 BCE to 180 CE) money payments sustained the circulation of wine, olive oil, and grain throughout the empire, but neither boom nor bust can be clearly detected […]

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Economic Growth Research Paper

This sample Economic Growth Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The term economic growth is used to indicate the increase of gross domestic or national product of a society; it can be divided into two categories. Extensive growth refers to increases that result from mobilizing more of the basic factors of production: land, labor, and capital. Intensive growth refers to growth that results from using the same factors more efficiently. Economic growth is an increase in the total value of goods and services produced by a given society. There is little common agreement, however, on how best to measure this value. Many distortions are possible even in societies where most goods and services are provided by specialists and exchanged for money—so that prices provide some standard of measure of the relative value people assign, for instance, to a sack of rice, an hour of child care, an automobile, or a concert ticket. Measuring economic growth is still more difficult where economic activity is carried on outside the market, and thus not given a price that makes it comparable to other products. (For example, if hired cooks are paid enough each hour to buy five square meters of cloth, then we know something about how to add cooking and cloth making together in an index of total value produced; but if all families cook for themselves, it becomes much harder to know how to do that addition.) Definitions of Economic Growth Despite these difficulties, it is widely agreed in principle that one can arrive at a total value for a society’s economic production, and that an increase in this number—economic growth—indicates an increase in material abundance in that society. Therefore, economic growth can have a significant influence on human welfare, though it does not automatically indicate material betterment; growth that is mostly directed toward building weapons, for instance, or growth that is so unevenly distributed that the number of very poor people is increasing would not do much to improve overall material welfare. Still, there is enough correspondence between economic growth and the capacity to meet material goals, whatever they may be, that in the twentieth century, measures of economic growth probably became the most widely used indicator for trends in aggregate human material welfare, both in the present and the past. Even those who are very skeptical of equating output with welfare usually agree that something important about a society is being measured when we measure the level and rate of change of its economic output. Economic growth is usually further divided into extensive and intensive economic growth. This distinction is clear in theory but messy in practice. Extensive growth refers to an increase in economic production that results from […]

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Ecumenicism Research Paper

This sample Ecumenicism Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Generally, ecumenicism is associated with the Christian tendency to promote religious unity, but the term more loosely refers to a desire for global cooperation among all religions. Ecumenicism dates back as far as the split between Rome and Byzantium in 1054. In modern times, ecumenicism was seen during European colonial expansion and again as those colonies gained independence and began their search for religious freedom. Ecumenicism refers to the striving for reconciliation and unity across the diversity of Christian denominations. To a lesser extent, it can also mean a looser goal of harmony among religions, both Christian and non-Christian. The term ecumenicism comes from the Greek word oikoumene, designating the entirety of the inhabited Earth (in the scope of Greek knowledge, roughly the lands from the western Mediterranean to India). It is one among many modes of universalistic thinking in world history. Premodern Ecumenicism The first wave of Christian ecumenicism occurred in the centuries after the split between Rome and Byzantium. The fairly short-lived unity of early Christendom had rested on the success of the Council of Nicaea (325 CE) and Constantinople (381 CE) in stamping out heretical sects, and of the far-reaching rule of the Roman Empire, which had adopted Christianity as its official religion in the fourth century. The division between the Latin West, centered on Rome, and the Orthodox East, centered on Byzantium, came to involve differences deeper than mere politics: a divergence of ideas about state–church relations, the relative strength of Roman and Greek cultural legacies, and so on. When the crusades brought more intense contact between western and eastern Christendom, the greater visibility of contrasts only worsened the state of ill will. Ecumenical thinking in these centuries revolved around the perceived need to restore the unity of Christendom as one expanding community of believers defined by correct doctrine and loyalty to one organized church (in practice, given the greater Western interest in ecumenicism, the Catholic Church with its pontiff at Rome). To a lesser extent, the same kind of thinking appeared in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century western Europe. The Protestant Reformation had put an end even to the unity of western Christendom, which had rested on the cultural-religious-intellectual syntheses of Aquinas, Dante, and the like. Despite these multiplying political and doctrinal divisions, the ideal of a single universe of believers lingered throughout Christianity’s second millennium. Much as in the other major Eurasian civilizations, a fragmented reality was being measured against the standard of a unified golden age. It was believed that cleavages of nation, race, and class should properly yield to the ultimate solidarity of the faithful. Of course, broader ecumenical patterns of thinking had long allowed […]

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Education Research Paper

This sample Education Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Education—the process of learning and teaching—has taken many forms over millennia, from storytelling, oral instruction, and imitation in hunter-gatherer societies to the formal, specialized, and (often) lengthy schooling afforded students in today’s industrialized world. Although the history of education is traditionally told nation by nation, rather than from a global perspective, passing our collective knowledge to future generations is central to the human experience. Education is a word used in many ways. Its Latin roots, e (“out”) and ducere (“to lead or draw”), suggest the meaning “to lead out or draw forth.” Education can be defined as learning and teaching, both informal (in daily life) and formal (schooling). Learning from experience and observation can occur without teaching, and, of course, teaching can occur without learning. Education can also mean the study of learning and teaching. The Uniqueness of Humans Learning, defined as modification in response to specific experience, certainly occurs in other animals; how far back hasn’t yet been determined. Other animal learning can be classical conditioning, as in Pavlov’s experiments, or operant conditioning, in which an animal is rewarded for chance behavior. It can be observational learning, or modeling, as birds learn their songs or wolves learn hunting behavior. A third kind of other animal learning, called insight learning, occurs when some animals like chimpanzees, ravens, and other birds are able to solve problems the first time they encounter them. In every species the balance between genetically determined and learned behavior varies; humans are unique in the large portion of their behavior that is learned. Humans are unique in other ways. Our capacity for language and communication far exceeds anything in the rest of the animal world. Our talent for syntactical, symbolic language permits us to exchange and pass on our knowledge so precisely that over time it accumulates. This talent, combined with the long dependency of juveniles on adults, has meant that humans accumulate collective learning in ways strikingly different from other animals. Since this is so, education lies at the heart of human life, in ways unlike those of any other animal, changing over time as human culture has evolved. The Foraging (Paleolithic) Era More than 95 percent of human history took place during the foraging (Paleolithic) era of hunter-gatherers, even if almost as many humans are alive now as during that entire period. Archeologists have found little to indicate how education took place in that society; we can only surmise based on knowledge of current hunter-gatherers. Direct observation and imitation surely occurred during the foraging era. Given the human gift with language, however, storytelling and oral instruction must have played increasing roles in the education of the […]

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Egypt Research Paper

This sample Egypt Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on history topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Nile River allowed Egypt to emerge, beginning from the sixth millennia BCE, as one of the world’s first hydraulic civilizations. Building canals and dikes, Egypt developed a redistributive economy and a complexly ordered, unified society under one king by 2950 BCE. Even as a part of other empires in other eras, Egypt became an icon of Western civilization, with a distinctive artistic canon recognizable today by the general public. Egypt has long been accorded a paramount place in world history. This is particularly true of ancient Egypt, which has exerted a powerful influence on both popular and scholarly imaginations to the point that it has been incorporated into the standard view of Western civilization. Other epochs in Egyptian history were also of great importance, however, and not only to Egypt but also to the history of the world. The Gift of the Nile As the climate of northeastern Africa dried out during the Holocene period, the peoples of the region had to move to wetter areas, either to the south or to the east to the Nile Valley. By the sixth millennium BCE, most of Egypt’s population had migrated to the valley of the Nile, a remarkable river that was the material basis for Egyptian civilization. Besides providing almost all of Egypt’s water, the Nile annually inundated the fertile land along its banks, leaving behind pools, depositing new soil, and washing away excess minerals, thereby avoiding the salinization that was the bane of other hydraulic civilizations such as ancient Mesopotamia. The river was continuously navigable throughout Egypt, from the broad delta in the north to the first cataract at Aswan, 900 kilometers (559 miles) to the south, providing ready communication and the means to convey heavy loads over long distances. (A cataract, of which the entire Nile has six, is a place where boulders break the water’s surface or where rapids flow; boats pass them only with difficulty.) The river was ideal for sailing craft: the steady current carried vessels north while the prevailing north wind propelled them south. Even today 95 percent of Egypt’s population lives within a few kilometers of the river. This was the matrix from which one of the world’s first hydraulic civilizations emerged. During Predynastic times (c. 5300–2950 BCE) increasingly complex social and political organizations developed to manage and maximize the river’s gift through construction of canals, dikes, and artificial pools, and through water-raising devices. Control of the resulting agricultural surpluses enabled an exploitative elite to establish a redistributive economy with increasing social stratification and differentiation of labor. A series of kingdoms developed along the Nile, growing ever larger and inevitably coming into conflict with each […]

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