This sample Managing Philanthropic Organizations Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This research-paper discusses the management dilemmas of foundations, the roots of these, and the ways in which they are handled.1 As foundations exist in many forms and types, it is useful to define them at the onset of this research-paper: Foundations are organizations that control and distribute assets, financial or otherwise, with the following characteristics: Non-membership-based organization Private entity Self-governing entity Nonprofit-distributing entity Grant-making entity Serving a public purpose Over time, foundations have adopted different models or approaches that provide legitimacy for their purpose, ways of operating, including management styles, and expected and actual impact. Charity The first approach, charity, the original model, was in many ways well suited to the social and political context of the 19th century. With inadequate provision by nonprofits and government, foundations provided services to those unable to care for themselves. As governments increasingly began to provide some services for some groups, foundations adapted the service approach to provide services complementary to those of government or to fill gaps in statutory provision. Until the early 20th century, this approach was probably effective; yet, it had and continues to have major shortcomings that prevent foundations from exploiting their fullest potential. First, the charity approach makes a difference to those lucky enough to benefit from the service but, taken alone, has no impact beyond that. Second, the approach tends to operate on the now largely false expectation that someone else will take up the job of widening and sustaining impact. Traditionally, it was assumed that what foundations start, government will and should continue—an assumption that no longer holds. Moreover, this approach can be and is adopted by other nonendowed or noncharitable organizations, such that a distinct role for foundations is no longer obvious. Finally, the charity model addresses symptoms rather than causes. In an important sense, the charity approach changes very little. This was the key criticism that led to the rise of the philanthropic/scientific foundation approach. Philanthropy This approach is different from charity in its emphasis on dealing with causes rather than symptoms of problems. Again, the rise of the philanthropic foundation was a product of its time. In the early to mid-20th century, belief in the power of a “scientific approach” was riding high, as was the notion of social engineering. Social, medical, and economic problems could all be solved once their causes were understood and scientific solutions applied. For all the achievements of the philanthropic/scientific approach, it too suffers from some weaknesses when viewed from a 21st-century perspective. First, like the charity approach, the philanthropic approach fails fully to exploit the unique potential of endowed foundations. For the most part, this approach can […]
Management Research Paper Examples
This list of management research paper examples provides almost 100 free research papers on topics that managers are confronting in the modern world. New technologies, globalization, and associated ethical implications frame many of these issues like the management of nonprofit, arts, healthcare, sports, and philanthropic organizations.
This sample Managing Sport Organizations Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Managing sport organizations at the start of the 21st century involves the application of management theories, principles, and strategies that are no different to managing organizations in the corporate, government, or nonprofit sectors. The sport industry, however, does have several unique attributes that influence how these theories, principles, and strategies are applied by sport managers. Sport has become a significant industry that employs large numbers of people in a variety of roles, is used as a vehicle for economic development in tourism and major events by governments, and is a major part of modern culture as evidenced by the amount of media coverage attributed to professional sport and by the numbers of people engaged around the world in playing and watching sport. Managing sport in the 21st century requires talented managers who are cognizant of how to apply management principles in the unique operating environment of the sport industry. This research-paper highlights nine attributes of sport that can be considered unique or different to managing in other organizational and environmental contexts, namely, consumer behavior, the relationship between sport and government, regulatory regimes, strategy, organizational structure, human resource management, organizational culture, governance, and performance management. Each of these unique attributes is briefly explained together with a focus on their implications for managing sport. The management of sport organizations has undergone a relatively rapid period of professionalization over the last 30 years and sport has become a significant industry in its own right. The general expansion of the global sports industry and commercialization of sport events and competitions such as the Olympic Games, combined with the introduction of paid staff into what were previously voluntary organizations and with the growing number of people who now earn a living managing sport organizations or playing sport, has forced sport organizations and their managers to become more professional. This is reflected in the increased number of university sport management courses, the requirement to have business skills as well as industry specific knowledge or experience to be successful in sport management, the growth of professional and academic associations devoted to sport management, and the variety of professionals and specialists that sport managers must deal with in the course of their careers. Sport managers work alongside accountants, lawyers, taxation specialists, government policy advisors, project management personnel, architects, market researchers, and media specialists, not to mention sports agents, sports scientists, event managers, coaches, officials, and volunteers. Sport employs many millions of people around the globe, is played or watched by the majority of the world’s population and, at the elite level, has moved from being an amateur pastime to a significant industry. The growth and professionalization of […]
This sample Hospital Planning Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. With the increase in worldwide terrorism incidents, hospital disaster plans need to be scrutinized to ensure they include preparedness elements that are unique to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents. The practice of emergency planning varies considerably among hospital facilities. The nature of the hospital planning process reflects a facility’s size, functions, and resources. Larger health care facilities have more resources and personnel and greater organizational complexity in medical specialization. Such hospitals tend to create formalized processes and rely more heavily on written plans and inter-agency agreements. Smaller facilities may adopt an informal process based on personal relationships and produce few written documents. Communities with a high frequency of hazard impacts—hurricanes along the Gulf Coast or earthquakes in California— are also likely to have a formalized planning process, even in smaller jurisdictions. The threat of WMD transcends these patterns because of the difficulty in predicting such events and the lack of geographic or seasonal focus. Even standard planning practices need modification to account for WMD threats. For example, the hospital itself or its staff may be targets; patients will arrive at the hospital with little or no warning (patients also converge on facilities closest to the scene, if there is a scene); many patients will be self-referred without treatment by emergency medical personnel at a scene; patients may need to be decontaminated at the hospital; the hospital building, equipment, and personnel can become contaminated; information regarding the nature and hazard of the agent will not be immediately available to hospital staff; and many patients will be present as “worried well,” having little or no exposure to the agent. These and other circumstances dictate that conventional planning may not be adequate to meet the demands posed by a WMD incident. Using examples of hospital experiences with such incidents, this research-paper reports on planning lessons learned. A foundation for good planning is examined by acknowledging that planning is an ongoing process that requires linkages to the wider community including public health authorities, political authorities, and emergency responders. The importance of realistic assumptions about how people react to disasters is also discussed. This research-paper reviews special elements of WMD incidents that need to be addressed in hospital disaster plans, such as, incident command, patient surge, communications, universal precautions, personal protective equipment, decontamination, and hospital security. This research-paper closes with a discussion of the importance of training and exercising in preparing hospitals to respond to WMD events. Establishing A Foundation For Good Planning The foundation of good emergency planning is rooted in applicable standards and regulations, the establishment of regional planning efforts, and an understanding of how citizens respond to crisis. Standards and Regulations […]
This sample Arts Management Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Arts management is a relatively new field in management research but one that is attracting increasing attention. At one level—the most predominant thus far—arts management is concerned with the activities of organizations such as museums, galleries, orchestras, dance and theater companies, opera houses, and groups promoting the arts in culture. Researchers and practitioners are concerned with the structure of these organizations, the way they acquire resources, and how they expend them. In addition, the types of programming offered by various arts bodies, how they are selected, and how they are received by the public have been subjects of study. As we will see in the following discussion, all of these issues are being influenced by environmental changes affecting the arts community. In addition to work at the organizational level, the activities of individual managers within arts organizations have come under increased scrutiny. While the popular view often features the heroic figure of a conductor or director, in fact, responsibility for much of the success of any arts institution rests on the work of administrators who handle marketing, sales, logistics, finances, human resources, and all the other necessary support functions. Each of these functions has its equivalent in the private sector but still must be adapted to the arts milieu. For example, human resources must often deal with high profile performers who appear with the company for a short time under quite specific constraints. Within any arts organization, a balance exists between administrative requirements, some of which may be imposed by outside bodies, and the aesthetic judgments inherent in presenting performances or exhibitions. How the relevant managers resolve these tensions has become a major topic in the study of arts management. One reason for increasing interest in arts management is the considerable growth of the arts industry both in its own right and as an important element in marketing cultural resources. As arts organizations undertake larger and more ambitious programs, the variety and degree of managerial skills required for success increases. A second cause for examining arts management stems from the decline of government subsidies for the arts. Although the level of government funding varies widely, the percentage of support coming from government bodies has generally decreased leading to greater reliance on revenue from admissions and sales, corporate support, and fundraising efforts. Even where government funding is available, competition for these funds has sharpened considerably. Increased difficulties in securing necessary resources means that arts organizations must operate more efficiently thus making greater demands on their managers. While the first two factors affect virtually all arts organizations, a third, increasing internationalization, mainly concerns larger institutions. The need to present high-quality work has […]
This sample Organizational Failures Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. On January 16, 2003, the Columbia space shuttle set out on its 28th flight into space, in what was characterized as a routine scientific mission. The shuttle disintegrated 2 weeks later while reentering the earth’s atmosphere, killing the seven astronauts onboard. Soon thereafter, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB, 2003)—a star-studded panel of experts on the safety of complex, high-risk systems—began trying to understand what had gone so terribly wrong. The investigative board determined the technical cause of the accident within several months. A piece of insulating foam had dislodged from the external tank of the shuttle during launch. That foam debris struck the leading edge of the vehicle’s wing, puncturing a hole in it. During the shuttle’s return to the earth’s atmosphere at the end of the mission, extremely hot gases entered the interior of the wing through that hole, melting the structure from the inside out. That melting caused the breakup of the vehicle. The investigators did not simply conduct a technical analysis of this catastrophic failure. They went on to evaluate the organizational systems, processes, and behaviors that enabled the tragedy to occur. They wanted to understand why NASA kept launching the shuttle despite a lengthy history of foam strike problems. They sought to determine why management had concluded that the astronauts were safe, despite some engineers’ serious concerns about the foam strike. The board members noticed organizational problems similar to those uncovered during the 1986 Challenger accident investigation, and they wondered why NASA had not corrected those problems in subsequent years. In the words of CAIB member Deal (2004), a retired Air Force General, the investigators sought to go “beyond the widget” during their analysis. They wanted to understand the organizational causes of the catastrophic failure, not simply the technical cause (i.e., the widget that broke). Deal summarized the board’s findings: “The foam did it. The organization allowed it” (p. 44). As the board conducted its investigation, many management scholars turned their attention to the Columbia accident as well. These researchers typically wanted to go “beyond the widget” (Deal, 2004) to understand the human and organizational conditions that led to this tragedy. The scholars that studied the Columbia accident followed in a long tradition of research into catastrophic failures. Prior studies had examined incidents such as the 1977 Tenerife airliner collision, the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident, the 1986 Challenger explosion, and the 1994 friendly fire incident in the Iraqi no-fly zone. Why should management researchers be interested in these types of complex and unusual tragedies? According to Starbuck and Farjoun (2005), who coedited a book about the Columbia accident, catastrophic failures “dramatize […]
This sample Organizational Memory Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Organization theorists, economists, and strategists have long sought to determine when organizations will be able to draw relevant information from their history. Although firms can sometimes learn from their experiences, we know that organizations and individuals frequently suffer from memory loss. Moreover, firms invest deeply in attempts to capture organizational memory in knowledge-management systems, but employees commonly underutilize these systems. As yet, our understandings on the performance benefits of organizational memory are still limited. These limited understandings likely stem from incomplete conceptualizations of information storage and retrieval and, in turn, from incomplete empirical tests. Conceptualizations of information storage and retrieval explain the supply side and demand side of organizational memory. Supply-side conceptualizations describe the structure of organizational memory as information archives within an organization, including employees, ecology, structure, culture, and transformation processes. In addition, these conceptualizations also describe the structure of organizational memory in terms of external archives maintained by other organizations (e.g., news agencies, professional databases, tax agencies, and stock exchanges). These internal and external archival storages describe the existence of information in many places within and outside the organization. These storages constitute the distributed and overlapping structures of organizational memory. One way to identify organizational memory is by its distributed structure. A distributed structure describes different information components that are stored in multiple locations within an organization (different pieces of information in different places). For instance, knowledge of how to weld metal exists in welding instruction manuals and in the heads of expert welders. Instruction manuals provide general information on how to weld, but expert welders have unique implementation skills that instruction manuals often do not capture. Another way to identify organizational memory is by its overlapping structure. An overlapping structure describes the same information component that is stored in multiple locations within the organization (the same piece of information in different places). Continuing the welding example, general descriptive information about welding tools exists both in manuals and in the heads of experts (overlap between codified and noncodified information). In addition, welding instructions can appear in many books and on many Web sites (overlap of codified information). In fact, organizational memory is often characterized by both a distributed structure and an overlapping structure. This dual characteristic makes it difficult to determine the effects of organizational memory on individual performance of organizational tasks. Doing so would require examining not only the supply side of organizational memory, but also the demand side of organizational memory. Currently there exist few demand-side conceptualizations of organizational memory. Demand-side conceptualizations focus on information retrieval from particular storage sources. They differ from supply-side conceptualizations in two ways. First, demand-side conceptualizations can be less comprehensive because […]