High Technology Entrepreneurship Research Paper

This sample High Technology Entrepreneurship Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The goals of this research-paper are to introduce the reader to the current state of knowledge on high technology entrepreneurship and to identify questions that are not yet answered, are open for debate, and are in need of further empirical research. (We have listed suggested research projects at the end of this research-paper.) This research-paper will discuss each of these items in turn, beginning with definitions and the importance of entrepreneurship, and turning next to the state of innovation in the U.S. innovation system and the sources of innovation. Next, moving through a typical sequence of start-up events, we identify significant issues that may create crises. We conclude with comparisons of the climate and institutional arrangements that support entrepreneurship in the United States and elsewhere. Entrepreneurship And Its Importance First, what is entrepreneurship, why is it important, and what is different about high technology entrepreneurship? While there are many definitions, we define entrepreneur-ship as a process of innovation that creates a new organization (new venture or start-up).1 An entrepreneurial venture is a relatively recently founded firm that is both young and small, but not by design and not for long. High technology entrepreneurs seek high growth and expect their ventures to develop into complex enterprises. Entrepreneurship thrives in countries whose national institutions and social norms support new venture creation and when collaboration is facilitated between industry, government, and educational institutions. Entrepreneurship is important because it fosters economic growth. The rate of entrepreneurship surged throughout the world in the last quarter of the 20th century, thriving in countries as diverse as China, India, the Czech Republic, Turkey, Korea, Ireland, Peru, and the United States, according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM; 2006), a 42-country, 5-continent study of the dynamic entrepreneurial propensities of countries. GEM investigators reported that a country’s rate of entrepreneurial activity is positively correlated with national economic growth (measured as per capita GDP) over time, 1999-2006. Entrepreneurs expand existing markets by identifying niches, thereby increasing competition and economic efficiency. They also create entirely new markets by developing innovative products as well as innovative applications and variants of existing product lines. New markets present profit opportunities to others, spurring further economic activity. Worldwide, the rate of early stage (nascent) entrepreneurship varies across countries from a low of 2.7% (Belgium) to a high of 40% (Peru), with the United States and Australia at 10% and 12%, respectively. However, this rate also depends on the demographic cultural and institutional characteristics of each country. Of the 24.7 million business firms in the United States in 2004, 99.7% employed between 10 and 200 people, accounting for 45% of the total private payroll, and […]

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Social Entrepreneurship And Social Enterprise Research Paper

This sample Social Entrepreneurship And Social Enterprise Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Social entrepreneurship and social enterprise are topics that have sparked considerable growing interest among leaders in the business, nonprofit, and government sectors as well as among academics in management, nonprofit, and public administration or policy programs. Interest in the academic community can be traced to the late 1970s, which saw the beginning of an agenda among those studying nonprofits and voluntary action to begin examining the relations between the nonprofit, for-profit, and government sectors. This has grown into a major academic focus and now includes theory and research on the limits of each organizational form; their interactions in industries where they coexist; and the blending, blurring, and combining of market and nonmarket structures and organizational forms. Social entrepreneurship touches upon a number of the issues currently being discussed in departments of economics, sociology, and public affairs. More recently, there has been a significant growth in the number of university centers established for the study and teaching of social entrepreneurship, typically in business or public affairs schools in centers for nonprofit study. Among nonprofit practitioners, the interest in social entrepreneurship has focused on the generation of earned income. Nonprofits have a long history of earning income. Nonprofit commercial activities in the past, however, were primarily designed to provide services to constituencies the organization was dedicated to serving (i.e., establishing a used clothing store for the poor). In the United States, this picture changed in the early 1980s. The economic slowdown and social service budget cuts during the Reagan administration led a number of nonprofits to either consider or initiate earned income ventures to make up for lost government funding. In 2000, the nonprofit sector became concerned about the possibility of further budget cuts from the George Bush administration. In addition, conservative outlooks in and out of government brought a rise in calls for both the nonprofit and public sectors to invest in market-based solutions to social problems, including paying more attention to earned income as a source of financial sustainability. Accompanying this has been a proliferation of consultants and support organizations as well as a variety of funding sources for these market-based solutions. For example, 2007 marked the eighth meeting of the Social Enterprise Alliance. The meeting is a major gathering of those devoted to promoting nonprofit commercialization. The interest in social entrepreneurship has recently taken on global dimensions as well. In addition to those in the United States and Western Europe, active social entrepreneurship agendas can be found in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Asia. A number of global-level supply-and-demand side factors have led to the increasing interest. On the supply side, Nicholls (2006) cites increased global […]

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Corporate Entrepreneurship Research Paper

This sample Corporate Entrepreneurship Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Growth, innovation, and flexibility are the main traits associated with entrepreneurship. Both theorists and practitioners consider these traits as desirable not only for entrepreneurial ventures, but also for established corporations. In the Schumpeterian view, however, the transition from a new venture to an established firm is associated with a descent of entrepreneurial spirit and an ascent of bureaucratic management. The integration of theories of organizational design and entrepreneurship results in the concept of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) that focuses on entrepreneurial behavior in larger established organizations. The concept of CE has gained considerable recognition over the past three decades. Its popularity stems from the varied contributions CE can make to a firm’s financial and nonfinancial performance. Thus, CE can improve financial indicators of performance, such as returns on assets and company growth. With regard to nonfinancial outcomes, CE facilitates collaboration, the renewal of operations, and the creation of new products, services, and processes, thus improving the firm’s competitive position. Moreover, CE activates organizational learning that is crucial for acquiring new competencies and capabilities that facilitate the exploration of new growth options beyond its traditional markets and industries. However, the expansion of the term entrepreneurship beyond its classical use raises several questions that will be answered in this research-paper: Which environmental and organizational conditions call for CE? What are the strategic intents that CE aims at, and which internal key variables affect the design and outcomes of CE? How can CE be managed appropriately? How does CE affect firm performance, and what factors influence the CE-performance relationship? Background A new competitive environment is taking shape in the 21st century. The following paragraphs discuss the resulting challenges for business development in the 21st century and align these to the current situation of established organizations. 21st-century Competitive Environment Challenges Managers today face major strategic discontinuities that are changing the nature of competition. The technological revolution and increase in globalization represent major challenges to companies’ ability to remain competitive. For instance, the digital revolution in the form of electronic business processes conducted via the Internet is altering the fundamentals of how companies run their businesses. The recent strategic discontinuities include the elimination of industry boundaries, coalescence between industrial and service businesses, computer-aided design and communication, and the opening of global markets. In many cases, these discontinuities occur simultaneously and are difficult to predict. Moreover, firms encounter these changes coexistent to intensive foreign competition in domestic markets. In this complex competitive environment, uncertainty and discontinuous, abrupt change are the only constant. Change and uncertainty may cause serious problems to those companies, which rely on the time-tested behavior of the past and are not able to adapt to […]

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Organizational Emergence Research Paper

This sample Organizational Emergence Research Paperis published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. It has been estimated that at any one time over 500 million people globally are involved in the process of starting up a new venture (Reynolds, Bygrave, & Autio, 2003). This makes the study of emerging organizations one of the primary areas of research in the field of entrepreneurship (Aldrich, 1999). Organizational emergence is a dynamic process involving activities such as obtaining resources, developing products, hiring employees, and seeking funding. New ventures undertake these activities at different times (Lichtenstein, Dooley, & Lumpkin, 2006), and in different orders (Carter, Gartner, & Reynolds, 1996). Carrying out these activities lays the foundation for the new venture to develop unique capabilities and to gain the trust of stakeholders. Organizational emergence involves those activities and events that are undertaken before an organization becomes an organization. This is the “in creation” period in the life cycle of an organization. The individuals who undertake purposeful actions to construct an organization based on their vision are referred to as nascent entrepreneurs (Aldrich, 1999; Baron, 1998, 2000; Bird, 1988). During emergence, the nascent entrepreneurs bring together resources and engage in activities that will eventually distinguish the business as an entity that is separate from the individuals who began it (Carter et al., 1996; Reynolds, Storey, & Westhead, 1994). While start-up activities are an important component when trying to understand an emerging organization, it is also important to develop an understanding of the individuals involved in the start-up process. These nascent entrepreneurs may form an organization on their own, or work with others in a team (Aldrich, 1999). They have different motivations for starting a firm, from wanting greater independence to trying to gain wealth (Carter et al., 1996), and they tend to have different support systems and career mentors. While some nascent entrepreneurs have a high regard for themselves and their ability (Markman, Balkin, & Baron, 2002), others are more modest. In addition, individuals who are thinking about starting a business tend to look for start-up opportunities in different places, and have very different ideas about what the size and scope of the business should be once the new venture is established. In this research-paper, we examine the scholarship around organizational emergence. To do so, we start by taking a look at the well-regarded conceptual model of organizational emergence developed by Katz and Gartner (1988). We then examine the empirical research with respect to who nascent entrepreneurs are and what nascent entrepreneurs do. Specifically, we review research on entrepreneurial cognition plus start-up activities and social capital. We then discuss the scholarship on indicators of emergence or start-up success. Finally, we present two sources of data on nascent firms that scholars […]

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