Managing Creativity And Innovation Research Paper

This sample Managing Creativity And Innovation Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. As organizations continually realign their activities to reach new and challenging performance goals, creativity and innovation become necessary and desirable processes that play increasingly critical roles not only to help organizations grow and prosper, but also to ensure their very survival in the 21st-century marketplace. As organizations’ boundaries expand and constituents’ needs change, managers are encountering problems and opportunities that are complex and that they have never before confronted. These may relate to the emergence of new global competitors across industries; the demand for new products, services, processes, and technologies; increased competition for the pool of talented employees; and the need for breakthrough solutions to persisting business and societal problems. Moreover, managers are discovering that the traditional methods and solutions that have historically been used to resolve many problems are no longer effective. With the recognition by management that different approaches and perspectives are needed to help their organizations survive and grow, the interest in managing creativity and innovation has exploded in recent years. This research-paper examines the nature of creativity and innovation in the workplace and examines how these processes can be managed in the 21st century organization. The following topics will be addressed: Theories of creativity and innovation: definitions, components, and how the processes are distinguished from one another The creative process for individuals and teams in organizations Assessment of creativity Obstacles to successful innovation Dimensions of organizational climate that influence creativity and innovation Managerial practices that stimulate and reinforce creativity Organizational strategies for successful innovation Future directions for managing creativity and innovation Creative thinking and behavior leading to successful, sustainable innovations are vital in most organizations. Managers who can effectively navigate and promote these processes will enable their teams, departments, and organizations to become entrepreneurial, and thus much more nimble in anticipating and responding to market changes. Theory Definitions Creativity Management scholars have defined creativity as the construction of novel and useful ideas, opportunities, or solutions. Amabile (1997, 1998), who proposed this definition of creativity, has written that creativity is the first step in innovation. For an idea to be considered creative, it should be different from what has been attempted in the past, it should be of good fit to the problem it may resolve or the opportunity it may enable, and it should be actionable. Therefore, a creative idea cannot be simply original or unusual. It has to be connected to a purpose, to be appropriate to the need it is attempting to fill. Creativity is often a response to something that prompts individuals and groups to find a solution. It has been described as going beyond the existing boundaries: knowledge boundaries, technology […]

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The State Of Organization Development Research Paper

This sample The State Of Organization Development Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Today’s leadership is basically about change. Developing technologies and emerging markets demand that executives be able to anticipate new directions and opportunities. This requires not only producing change, but also managing the turbulence that results. Organization development (OD) is about change and has the twin goals of planning and executing successful change while also increasing the organization’s competence to handle future change. This should produce an alignment of goals where leaders would welcome the wisdom and competence that OD professionals bring. Yet, as observed in our recent book, Reinventing Organization Development (Bradford & Burke, 2005), very few executives use (or may even be aware of) OD. Instead, they rely heavily on the major consulting firms. Why are the latter at the executive table while OD is largely ignored or relegated to the bowels of the organization often within the human resources function? We asked a dozen of the present and past leaders in the field to comment on this paradox. While their individual answers differed to some degree, many questioned whether the practice of OD truly spoke to the needs of most leaders. In this research-paper, we will not review the specific arguments in this book (but urge readers to do so on their own), and instead, take the discussion further to understand this paradox. Our arguments will be built around three definitions of OD: (a) the espoused definition; (b) how it is defined when we look at the field in practice, and (c) how it needs to be defined if it is to be widely valued by executives. We will suggest that much of the present difficulty with OD is not only the contradiction between the first two definitions, but also problems embedded within these two definitions. The Espoused Definition Of OD Burke (in press) reviewed several of the formal definitions and concluded that most practitioners in the field would likely include in their definitions that OD is (a) planned, (b) a long-term process, (c) based on commonly held values (especially the value of participation), (d) based on a systems perspective, and (e) essentially about change and development with reliance on the application of the behavioral sciences. The general model of intervention is one of initial diagnosis (often involving quantitative as well as qualitative data collection), followed by analysis, meaning a summary of what the data indicate, plus the use of a framework or model. The purposes of using some framework or model are to provide (a) conceptual meaning, (b) a systems perspective, and (c) an evidence-based and documented basis for action. Once the analysis of the data is complete, feedback to the client organization follows. […]

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Organization Development Research Paper

This sample Organization Development Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Organization development (OD) features prominently in organizational change management theory and practice. Early forms of OD emanated from the United States approximately 50 years ago and since then OD has been widely applied in organizational settings across the world including in Asia (Rao & Vijayalakshmi, 2000), Africa (James, 2004) and Eastern Europe (Perlaki, 1994). The content of the research-paper is structured as follows. The introductory sections examine the nature of OD and the philosophy that has traditionally underpinned it. Later sections of the research-paper pursue these themes in more depth by exploring (a) a variety of techniques that have traditionally been closely associated with OD, (b) ways in which OD has evolved over recent years, and (c) challenges that currently face those working in the field. What is OD? “Organization development” (OD) is an ambiguous phrase associated with the theory and practice of change management in organizations. For reasons explained in this research-paper, OD is difficult to define. The phrase OD certainly means different things to different people. This lack of a standard definition can be particularly confusing to those who are new to the subject. However, early in this introduction, it may be helpful to highlight that, in recent years, the practice of OD has become more closely associated with disciplines such as human resource management (HRM) and human resource development (HRD). One indication of these links between OD, HRM, and HRD is that in countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom organizations regularly advertise for full-time OD practitioners in HR professional journals. At the outset, it should be noted that the origins of the phrase OD are difficult to isolate. French and Bell (1999) suggested that the term OD probably emerged simultaneously in two or three places. This absence of a clearly identifiable founding theorist of OD may help to explain why there is no standard or universal definition. Similarly, it is impossible to pinpoint the date on which OD was introduced to the world, though the work of influential OD theorists such as Lewin, Likert, Lippitt, and Beckhard tended to emerge in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. However, while the origins of the term OD are rather unclear, there appears to be a consensus surrounding its general aims; that is, as the label suggests, OD is about developing organizations and individuals through the use of carefully planned change-management interventions. Despite the lack of a universally accepted definition of OD, readers may find it helpful to be provided with two often-quoted definitions. Beckhard (1969) defined OD as an effort planned, organizationwide, and managed from the top to increase organization effectiveness and health, through planned interventions […]

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Organizational Change Agency Research Paper

This sample Organizational Change Agency Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Most academic disciplines are marked by their employment of essential concepts; that is, the way that their own theories, ideas, and constructs are used to capture or provide knowledge about particular phenomena. While there is some debate about the issue, it seems at least viable that change has become one of those essential concepts for the field of organizational development (e.g., Caldwell, 2005b). Indeed, if there were a concept that would rival any other in the past 2 decades of discourse about organizational dynamics, it would be change. So pressing the perceived need, and so acute the perceived circumstances, that just a few years ago the periodical Fast Company featured the headline “Change or Die!” on the cover. For the most part, the headline is true. Change has become an integral part of organizational life for both organizational members and organizations. Increasingly powerful technology plays some of a role in this: Technology advances now almost as fast as it processes information, so the ability to process more information faster requires new, innovative ways of managing information for better decisions. These new innovative ways of managing, in turn, set up an internal organizational dynamic of constant change. It is common—even trite by now—to hear members of all types of organizations talk about a current change initiative as the flavor of the month. While workers (and managers) may be a bit jaded by all of the change and all of the talk about change, it does make the process of change agency in the 21st century a rather complex phenomenon. Change agency refers to how change is actually accomplished in organizational life. For every organizational change, some mechanism or entity has instigated it or is responsible for the guidance, implementation, or maintenance of the change. This mechanism or entity—usually a human being—is called a change agent. The activity of this mechanism or entity is called change agency. In this research-paper, I sketch a picture of change agency in 21st-century organizational life. My broad purpose is twofold: (a) to provide a more or less comprehensive understanding of the nature and functions of change agency in organizations—the nature and function of agency changes, certainly, according to organizational structure, culture, and the type of the change initiated; and (b) to offer some potential avenues of agency for readers inclined to take up the actual work of organizational change. While much of the change work is conceived and initiated in the context of organizational development (OD) by OD professionals, much of it also could and should be undertaken by professionals in other organizational roles. Specifically and by way of preview, in this research-paper, I (a) […]

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Adopting RFID Research Paper

This sample Adopting RFID Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. In most of today’s modern companies, information technology (IT) forms the backbone on which information is circulated throughout and beyond the organization to inform employees, customers, trading partners, and other entities about the activities of the organization. For example, internal IT systems connect finance, marketing, manufacturing, human resources, and other parts of the firm through enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems that track orders and production output. Web-based Internet applications called extranets allow authorized external trading partners to enter protected parts of the organization’s internal systems to view relevant production schedules. Customer relationship management (CRM) systems use data mining techniques that allow sales and marketing personnel to understand historical sales data and create more personalized experiences for customers. Powerful IT-based analytical and trading tools allow financial analysts to forecast stock trends and link directly into the market to engage in electronic trading. Occasionally, a new technology emerges that can result in major improvements in the cost-performance capabilities of the firm’s information systems (IS). Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that has the potential to dramatically alter the ability of the organization to acquire data about the location and condition of any item that can be physically tagged and wirelessly scanned within certain technical limitations (Curtin, Kauffman, & Riggins, 2007). When this type of new technology comes along, it is important to have frameworks that allow managers to judge the potential business value of the technology, which can help them build the business case for related investments. Further, these frameworks can help managers develop plans for organizational change that is often needed to take full advantage of the innovation. In this research-paper, I provide an overview of RFID technology and suggest a framework to analyze the business case for adopting RFID. At the conclusion of this research-paper, the reader should have a working knowledge of some of the components that make up an RFID system, as well as an understanding of the various ways this technology can add value to today’s organization. Background And Relevant Technical Issues In 2005, MIT listed RFID as the 10th most innovative technology of the past 25 years ahead of hybrid cars, HDTV, the space shuttle, and nanotechnology. One reason why it is considered so innovative is that it can be used to track the location of items, monitor the surrounding environmental conditions, wirelessly communicate with strategically placed readers, and emit radio signals that can be used by other equipment to initiate changes to the object or its surroundings. Essentially, RFID has the potential to bring computer-based intelligence to any mobile item that can be tagged. For example, by tagging individual items held in a retailer’s […]

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Managing Intangible Capital Research Paper

This sample Managing Intangible Capital Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Competitive advantage and sustaining and growing the business, depends on the use and development of assets or capital—tangible and intangible. A vast literature exists on the topic of managing the tangible capital but management of the intangible is a recent topic. Competition in the 21st century depends on it. “Intangible assets—patents and know-how, brands, a skilled workforce, strong customer relationships, software, unique processes and organizational designs, and the like—generate most of a company’s growth and shareholder value” (Lev, 2004). In firms like Microsoft, intangibles account for 80 to 90% of the value of the corporation (Crainer, 2000; Lev, 2004). Capital represents resources or assets—either tangible or intangible—that can be used to produce more capital or wealth. Capital refers to any long-lived asset into which other resources can be invested, with the expectation of a future flow of benefits. The value of the company is the value of all its forms of capital minus its liabilities. Organizations rely on both tangible and intangible forms of capital but have traditionally focused on the tangible—financial (e.g., money and credit) and physical assets (e.g., buildings and equipment). Although intangible resources (e.g., knowledge, skill, and motivation) have clearly been recognized and manipulated informally throughout history, deliberate attention to their role in the organization has only emerged in the past decade. Intellectual capital has been the primary focus, perhaps because of the transformation of the economy from a predominantly production-based to a knowledge-based system. However, a large number of other types of intangible capital have been described in recent research journal articles since then including social, relationship, political, customer, organizational, human structural, process, knowledge market, innovation, and collaborative. This research-paper presents various forms of intangible capital and why their development is important to maintaining competitive. An example using a new product development process illustrates how multiple intangible capitals combine for success product introduction and highlights how even a very few deficits in intangible capital can jeopardize success. What Is The Issue? The term capital has connotations that lead people to think automatically of the tangible. Indeed, Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (2007) defines capital as “Material wealth in the form of money or property that is used to produce more wealth.” This stems from a period in time where financial capability—and the assets it could buy—was considered the key to competitive advantage. A company with resources could take greater advantage of new technology, sink money into expanding new markets, and invest heavily in new product development. Indeed, capital is one of the three factors of production in classical economic theory (the others being materials and labor). The current reality of competitive advantage, however, is that companies […]

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