Political Science Research Paper Examples

This collection of political science research paper examples  is an attempt to make fairly complex approaches in politics accessible to advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students. There is very little in the way of reference works in political science that are sufficiently accessible that students can profitably use them to assist the pursuit of their research paper writing. In particular, we have sought to make a collection that would provide students with the essentials of various approaches (both theoretical and methodological) in political science. Our focus on essentials has meant covering fairly broad areas in the discipline, rather than specific research paper topics. In our view, this broad focus would be most useful to students.

We have collected almost 100 example papers on the most important political science topics. This collection of research papers on political science highlights the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates that any student obtaining a degree in this field ought to have mastered. The purpose is to provide students in political science with an authoritative reference source that will help their research paper writing efforts with far more detailed information than short essays.

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Political Science History Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on The History of Political Science features 6600+ words (24 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 30 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Traditionalism A. Definition and Overview B. Case Studies of Traditionalism III. Behavioralism A. Definition and Overview B. A Case Study of Behavioralism IV. Postbehavioralism A. Definition and Overview B. A Case Study of Postbehavioralism V. Conclusion I. Introduction Within the discipline of political science in the United States, traditionalism, behavioralism, and postbehavioralism are three distinct political science research approaches. That is, each offers a perspective on how best to carry out investigation, analysis, and explanation relating to politics and political life (Dryzek & Leonard, 1988). These three approaches represent different points of emphasis regarding the ways in which research about politics should proceed. For example, it will be seen that traditionalism—in comparison with behavioralism—tends to emphasize the usefulness of analyzing governmental institutions when studying political phenomena, whereas behavioralism tends to assert the importance of research into the intricacies of the behavior of individual political actors (e.g., citizens, lobbyists, candidates, elected officials). However, all three research perspectives share the belief that political science research should produce explanations that improve and deepen our understanding of complex political processes. As one begins to analyze the meaning and complexity of traditionalism, behavioralism, and postbehavioralism, it is important to keep in mind three points. First, traditionalism, behavioralism, and postbehavioralism are broad categories, and within each category one finds a variety of political scientists who are not necessarily in agreement on all matters relating to the study of politics. For example, during the years in which traditionalism was the prevailing research approach within political science, Woodrow Wilson (1911) delivered an address to the American Political Science Association (APSA) that called into dispute various claims made by previous APSA president James Bryce. In 1908, Bryce had stated that political science, that is, a scientific understanding of politics, was possible insofar as human actions tended to be similar, or repeatable, over time; thus, Bryce (1909) reasoned, one could generalize about patterns of human activity and draw conclusions about political life. Wilson (1911), however, while not altogether denying the existence of some degree of patterned activity over time, stressed the uniqueness characterizing human beings and human actions. Despite these differences, both Bryce and Wilson were representative of traditionalist political science. Second, traditionalism, behavioralism, and postbehavioralism are often linked with certain decades in the development of political science in the United States. Traditionalism is usually associated with the political science practiced during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Behavioralism is generally associated with the post-World […]

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Postmodernism Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on postmodernism features 9100+ words (32 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 37 sources.  Outline I. Introduction II. Postmodern Theory III. Postmodern Thinkers A. Jean-Francois Lyotard B. Jacques Derrida C. Michel Foucault D. Jean Baudrillard E. Anthony Giddens F. Applications and Empirical Evidence 1. Socially Constructing Political Reality Through the Nightly News 2. The Social Construction of Crime Problems 3. The New Penology: Rabble Management and Actuarial Risk Assessments 4. Understanding Institutional Realities IV. Policy Implications V. Future Directions for Research VI. Conclusion I. Introduction “Postmodernism,” writes criminologist John Crank (2003), “is a body of philosophy, methodology, and critical review of contemporary society that encompasses a variety of standpoints” (p. 153). Although we will revisit this simple description of postmodernism in some detail below, it is not uncommon that when first encountering this (or similar) encapsulations of postmodernism, many students of political theory are left scratching their heads. This is not necessarily the fault of the student. In fact, scholars, too, are left scratching their heads (sometimes angrily) over the dilemma of postmodernism and its “questionable” application to “real life.” Whether postmodernism and postmodern theories are applicable to real life is a debate, essentially, about the nature of reality and the value of some types of knowledge over others. This research paper intends to plunge the student directly into this debate. Drawing inspiration from famous postmodernist Jean- François Lyotard, this paper intends to expose readers to knowledge that will both enhance their knowledge base and change the way they acquire and process knowledge in the future. As a serious student of political science, the reader is likely referencing this handbook in order to answer specific questions about postmodernism. The bad news is that philosophical postmodernism rejects absolute answers to almost any question. The good news, on the other hand, is that exposure to postmodern thought (and its application to empirical research) will broaden, and thus enhance, the reader’s knowledge of the world. Simply, while postmodernism may reject dominant narratives (i.e., “official” answers), it offers a great deal of insight into many social worlds that have gone largely unexamined. This handbook then will increase the reader’s level of sophistication regarding the “what is” and the “what ought to be” as conceptualized by postmodernist scholars. These are not unimportant questions in political science, and an enhanced knowledge of how postmodernism has influenced the way these realities are constructed will enhance the reader’s ability to think critically about political and other social phenomena. This research paper summarizes the broad topic of postmodernism and distills it into its essential elements. First, […]

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Neoinstitutionalism Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on neoinstitutionalism features 5100+ words (19 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 41 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. The Historical Roots of the New Institutionalism A. The Traditionalists B. The Behavioral Revolution III. The New Institutionalism Emerges A. A Return to the Law and Legal Analysis B. The New Institutionalism in Comparative Politics IV. Is There One Definition of a Political Institution? V. Multiple Levels of Analysis VI. Three Streams of New Institutionalism A. Rational Choice Institutionalism B. Sociological Institutionalism C. Historical Institutionalism VII. Conclusion I. Introduction Neoinstitutionalism, also known as the new institutionalism, has been one of the primary methodological approaches in political science in the United States since the late 1980s. This methodology is especially popular among scholars of U.S. politics, although it is growing in influence in the fields of comparative politics and international relations. The new institutionalism combines the interests of traditionalist scholars in studying formal institutional rules and structures with the focus of behavioralist scholars on examining the actions of individual political actors. The new institutionalism thus explores how institutional structures, rules, norms, and cultures constrain the choices and actions of individuals when they are part of a political institution. In other words, “The neo-institutionalist perspective combines the microlevel study of individual behavior with the macrolevel sensitivity to the institutional factors that help shape that behavior” (Miller, 1995, p. 6). The new institutionalism is a very influential postbehavioralist methodology today among political scientists in the United States and abroad. II. The Historical Roots of the New Institutionalism A. The Traditionalists From the 1930s through the 1950s, traditionalist scholars dominated political science as a discipline, and especially political science as practiced in the United States. These scholars were most interested in examining the formal structures and rules that were the foundation of political and governmental institutions such as the executive branch, the legislative branch, and the judiciary. As Rhodes, Binder, and Rockman (2006) explain, “When political science emerged as a separate field, it emphasized the study of formal legal arrangements as its exclusive subject matter” (p. xii). These studies were often descriptive in nature, using mostly qualitative methods, and they usually did not use broad theories in order to ground their observations in a larger theoretical perspective. Often they were quite normative in their desire to describe how political institutions ought to function, as opposed to the empirical study of how things actually worked in practice. Rhodes et al. thus describe the traditionalist approach in this way: The older studies of institutions were rooted in law and legal institutions, focusing not only on […]

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Systemism Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on systemism features 3200+ words (13 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 10 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. The Evolution of Systemism Theory A. Individualism B. Holism C. Systemism III. Applications A. Systemism in Social Science B. Urban Politics 1. Case Studies 2. Survey Research C. Systems Analysis 1. Problem Formulation 2. Modeling 3. Analysis and Optimization 4. Implementation IV. Policy Implications V. Conclusion I. Introduction Systemism has emerged as an important worldview and methodological approach in social science. This approach is generally against reductionism, and it sees everything either as a system or as part of a system. This view is different from individualism or holism. While individualism emphasizes individuals in society, holism focuses on structure. Systemism can be seen as an alternative way to make sense of a complex world. This research paper explores the historical and theoretical development of the systemism approach in social science by addressing its applications and policy implications. Systemism contributes to methodological issues such as systems analysis, modeling, case study, and survey research, and it may have significant policy implications in the fields of environmental politics, administrative decision making, and urban politics and development. II. The Evolution of Systemism Theory In social science studies, there are generally three different broad perspectives to understanding behavior: individualism, holism, and systemism. Systemism can be seen as being situated between individualism and holism. A. Individualism Individualism emphasizes the important role of an individual in society. It claims that society exists for the benefit of the individual, and the individual must not be constrained by government interventions or made subordinate to collective interests. Ayn Rand, who was a philosopher of the early 20th century, wrote that humans are ultimate ends in themselves, not means to the ends of others. The pursuit of one’s own self-interest and happiness is the highest moral purpose of life. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Adam Smith, and Max Weber used similar ideas to describe the world in the philosophical tradition of individualism. Social systems are collections of individuals. In sum, individualism focuses on (a) protecting natural freedoms and rights, (b) pursuing the development of society for the benefit of the individual, and (c) supporting capitalism with minimum government. However, it fails to recognize the causes of social problems and the importance of government intervention. B. Holism While individualism is an important way of thinking about individual choices and behaviors in everyday life, holism emerged to address some of the limitations of individualism. Individualism argues that individuals maintain a primary influence over society. It may embody a degree of validity in explaining […]

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Rationality and Rational Choice Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on Rationality and Rational Choice features 6900+ words (25 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 41 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Policy Making, Decision Making, and Rationality III. Simon, March, and the Limits of Rationality IV. The Legacy of Bounded Rationality V. The Foundations of Rational Choice VI. Rational Choice Arrives in Political Science A. Understanding Contemporary Rational Choice Theory B. Rational Choice Controversies C. Toward Reconciliation V. Conclusion and Disciplinary Directions I. Introduction The rationality concept has figured prominently in some of the most fascinating, heartfelt, and at times acrimonious scholarly exchanges among political scientists. This research paper focuses on five important intellectual developments in the study of rationality from a political science perspective: (1) the 1960s as an important era in scholarly exploration of the relationship between public policy making, decision making, and rationality; (2) Herbert Simon’s seminal and hugely influential theorizing on decision making and the limits of individual rationality; (3) the legacy of bounded rationality, particularly in Graham Allison’s models of decision making; (4) the seminal work of a group of economists and political scientists during the 1950s and 1960s who figured prominently in the emergence of modern rational choice theory; and (5) the modern scholarly debate over rational choice. A central theme of this survey is the tension between economic and political definitions of rationality and how these conceptions of rationality have shaped contemporary political science theory and research. II. Policy Making, Decision Making, and Rationality Charles Lindblom’s “The Science of ‘Muddling Through’” (1959) was an important milestone for a whole generation of theory and research on public policy making. Although an economist by training, Lindblom became a major figure in political science, particularly among scholars of public administration and public policy. While exploring the intersection of public policy making and administrative decision making, Lindblom compares two “methods” of policy analysis and choice, identified as “rational-comprehensive” and “successive limited comparisons” (p. 81). The first method is summarized as the “root” method and the latter, the “branch” method. Lindblom presents the rational-comprehensive method (or model) in a negative light, as not only empirically flawed social science but as normatively questionable as a guide for sound decision making and public policy making in a democracy. The rational-comprehensive model assumes that policies are crafted through a process that involves advance specification of key values and goals, tightly configured means–ends analysis, extensive analysis that is at once comprehensive and characterized by high levels of information, and a prominent role for theory-driven analysis. Out of this analytically intensive and information-rich process emerges a policy choice that is the […]

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Principal-Agent Theory Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on Principal-Agent Theory features 6900+ words (23 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 34 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Classic Views of the Principal–Agent Relationship III. Political Science IV. Critiques V. Possible Application to Recent Events I. Introduction Imagine the worst happens, and you are falsely accused of a crime in a city in which you are vacationing and in which you do not know anyone. You are arrested and advised of your rights to an attorney and one phone call. Which lawyer do you call? Which lawyer has the best training in the type of issues for which you were arrested? Which one has the best record on these matters? Which one can you afford? Will the one you pick work hard for you? Or will you choose one that will do only a minimal job, which could land you in prison? How can you make the best and most rational decision with this lack of information? Few people in this situation would have enough information concerning which attorney has the appropriate training or which is the most dedicated to clients. However, any lawyer contacted would know these things about themselves. This asymmetry of (or differences in access to) information constitutes one of the key elements of the principal–agent problem. It is also called the adverse selection problem.1You have to hire someone with only limited information concerning his or her qualifications, training, and achievements. Moreover, potential agents have an incentive to overstate their abilities and experiences in order to obtain the commission. In addition, you and your lawyer have some interests in this case that are different. You may want your lawyer to dedicate the next several months of his or her life to your case. Your lawyer, by contrast, may want to spend the minimum amount of time possible on your case, get paid, win if possible, and pursue other interests. This highlights another aspect of the principal– agent problem: moral hazard. Agents and principals often have competing self-interests, despite the fact that the agent is hired specifically to represent the interests of the principal. The agent (the lawyer in this case) could put his or her interests ahead of the principal’s (you in this case) by taking payment and not putting forth a strong effort. However, to be fair, unless the lawyer insists on payment up front, he or she runs the risk of doing a great job and then not being paid appropriately afterward. Finally, your lawyer may recommend a course of action (e.g., plead innocent, take a plea bargain) that you cannot […]

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Political Psychology Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on Political Psychology features 7700+ words (26 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 44 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. The Central Assumptions of the Political Psychology III. How the Political Psychology Is Studied IV. Origins and Historical Development of the Political Psychology V. Personality Studies and Psychoanalysis VI. The Rise of Voting Behavior and Research on Political Attitudes VII. Decision Making and International Politics VIII. Where the Field Is Going: A Fourth Phase? I. Introduction The term political psychology refers to the study of the ways in which human psychology—our thought processes, personalities, beliefs, and so on—affects politics, and it can be thought of as the area where the academic disciplines of political science and psychology overlap or intersect. It can also be thought of as a kind of “bridge” between the two fields. Just as political economy studies the ways in which economic relationships affect political behavior (as well as the ways in which politics affects economics), political psychology looks at the ways in which our cognitions and emotions, as well as the social pressures surrounding us, can shape our behavior in the political realm. It would be odd indeed if the ways in which the human mind works, for instance, did not affect our voting choices in significant ways, the manner in which we campaign, the tendency of some individuals to engage in genocidal behavior, or the practice of terrorism (to note but a few of the ways in which human beings act politically). In fact, while many political scientists attempt to explain our behavior in other ways—most commonly, by modeling it according to the assumptions of classical economics—there is at least a grudging acceptance within the discipline today that any full account of the vast array of behaviors that human beings engage in when they act politically simply requires an understanding of political psychology. II. The Central Assumptions of the Field Perhaps rather surprisingly, a number of traditional approaches within political science give psychology short shrift. Many of the theories one encounters when one first studies political science tend to emphasize the importance of structures, context, or what might be called “the nature of the times,” rather than analyzing the properties of actors or individuals. Marxism, for instance, offers an especially stark example of this tendency. It tends to discount the role of individuals in history, ascribing to material factors a powerful causal effect that overwhelms the significance of particular individuals. History, according to this dialectical view, follows a familiar and predictable drumbeat no matter who the actors involved happen to be at any […]

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Straussians Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on Straussians features 7500+ words (26 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 34 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Classical and Modern Political Science A. The Critique of Science B. The Problem of Common Sense C. The Analysis of Regimes III. Straussian Studies IV. Politics and Political Science V. Straussians, East and West VI. Conclusion I. Introduction Leo Strauss was one of the most prominent and controversial political theorists of the 20th century. He is perhaps most well-known for his view that classical political science, exemplified by Plato and Aristotle, is superior to modern political science in its various forms. Strauss cultivated in his students and admirers a certain disdain for contemporary political science, which he believed was largely irrelevant or even dangerous to political life. He emphasized the need for political science to be prescriptive with respect to the ends as well as the means of political action. Strauss’s followers are now commonly known as the Straussians, although some of them resist the label. While there are disagreements among them, they generally adhere to his rejection of mainstream political science, with its emphasis on method, math, and theory. They make up a relatively small but important group within academic political science, several holding posts in some of the most prestigious universities in the United States. While most of them hold formal positions in the field of political philosophy, their work extends to all the substantive fields of contemporary academic political science. In what follows, the Straussian approach to political science and the place of the Straussians within the discipline are examined. First, the Straussian preference for classical political science is explained. Second, the array of Straussian scholarship is reviewed, particularly with a view to its practical ends. Third, given the political emphasis of the Straussians, the political reaction to their work is explored. Finally, the political and philosophic divisions among the Straussians are examined. II. Classical and Modern Political Science The Straussian approach to political science may be understood in light of what Strauss viewed as the crisis of liberal democracy. The crisis consists in the loss of confidence in the principles underlying liberal democracy (Strauss, 1964). This loss of confidence was largely caused, Strauss argued, by tendencies manifested in the practical application of those principles, including an excessive preference for rights over duties, a naive and even dangerous belief in progress, and an inclination to moral relativism. Stated differently, liberal democracy had become too liberal and too democratic. Contemporary academic political science, Strauss argued, merely reflects this more general crisis. Strauss and his students believe that […]

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Systems Theory and Structural Functionalism Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on Systems Theory and Structural Functionalism features 7900+ words (28 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 33 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Systems Theory A. The Political System B. Applying Systems Analysis 1. Inputs and Outputs C. Criticisms of Systems Analysis III. Structural Functionalism A. History of Structural Functionalism IV. Varieties of Functional Analysis A. Applying Functional Analysis to the Study of Politics 1. An Example of the Functional Approach B. Terminology Used in Structural-Functional Analysis 1. Function and Structure 2. Requisites and Prerequisites 3. Concrete and Analytic Structures 4. Institutions, Traditional Structures, and Utopian Structures 5. Ideal and Actual Structures C. Criticisms of Structural Functionalism V. Conclusion I. Introduction Although structural functionalism finds its roots much earlier than systems does theory, as researchers use it today, it is based on systems theory. Structural functionalism traces its beginnings back to the ancient Greeks and the writings of Aristotle (Susser, 1992). Systems theory emerged much later. Although the discussion of systems began with biologists in the 19th century, systems theory was not fully articulated until the 1920s. Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1956, 1962), who developed general systems theory, was a principal in establishing it as a field of study. Although systems theory originated later than functionalism, when researchers study functions within their structures, they do it within the scope of systems. The study of political systems came into its own with the adoption of a structural- functional approach. The systems approach of David Easton (1965a, 1965b) and Karl W. Deutsch (1963) grew out of sociological and communication theory and a “move toward the theory and data of politics” (Almond & Powell, 1966, p. 12). Easton and Deutsch followed a communication, or cybernetic, model to study politics. Gabriel A. Almond’s study of political systems grew out of a tradition of political theory and draws from sociological and communications theories. While Easton and Deutsch adopted a purely systems approach, Almond applied structural functionalism to systems theory. Both have value in the study of political systems. II. Systems Theory A system, according to Anatol Rapoport (1966, 1968), is a set of interrelated entities connected by behavior and history. Specifically, he stated that a system must satisfy the following criteria: One can specify a set of identifiable elements. Among at least some of the elements, one can specify identifiable relations. Certain relations imply others. A certain complex of relations at a given time implies a certain complex (or one of several possible complexes) at a later time. (Rapoport, 1966, pp. 129-130) This definition is broad enough to include systems as different as the […]

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Political Development and Modernization Research Paper

This sample political science research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on political science at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. This sample research paper on political development and modernization features 7900+ words (28 pages), an outline, APA format in-text citations, and a bibliography with 30 sources. Outline I. Introduction II. Modernization Theory III. Applications, Empirical Evidence, and Critiques A. Political Order in Changing Societies B. Dependency Theory C. Natural Resource Curse and Modernization Theory D. Survival Theory E. Summary of Lessons From Modernization Theory IV. Policy Implications for Promoting Democratization V. Future Directions VI. Conclusion I. Introduction Political science has long been concerned with how to establish systems allowing us “to be free from hunger and repression.” Political development implies that some governments are better at accomplishing these goals than others are. Although we should be careful not to idealize democracy with all its imperfections— and indeed Samuel Huntington would remind us that political order matters more—many agree that democracy in some form is preferable to the wide array of nondemocratic systems of government. Modernization refers to economic development and the transformation from agricultural to industrial societies, along with corresponding social and cultural shifts (although the use of terms such as modern and primitive has been criticized as inappropriately stereotyping certain cultures from a Western perspective). The central question of how economic conditions are linked with the emergence of democracy or dictatorship has been a topic of interest from the time of ancient scholars through contemporary political science. Aristotle noted that democracy could not function well in a society in which a large proportion of the population lived in poverty.1 In a study of early American democracy, Tocqueville (1835) also noted that democratic systems would suffer in societies with great economic inequality; where inequality and democracy coexisted, class cleavages would define politics and the poor would vote to redistribute wealth from the rich.2 Reacting to the spread of Communism around the world beginning in the 1950s, scholars and politicians in democratic countries concerned themselves with the necessary prerequisites of a democratic society, including economic factors, in order to predict which countries were likely to become or stay democratic. On the collapse of many communist regimes in the early 1990s, our attention again turned to explaining the relationship between economics and politics as countries struggled to transition to democracy and to market-based economies simultaneously. Questions about the prerequisites for successful democracy have continued to be relevant more recently in countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan. This research paper traces the study of political development and modernization. First, it discusses the origins and development of modernization theory, which encompasses a set of explanations linking economic, social, and cultural changes with shifts in political systems. Modernization theory is a […]

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