Psychology Research Paper Examples

Psychology research paper examples below attempt to capture psychology’s vast and evolving nature. We believe that our choice of traditional and cutting-edge research paper topics reflects contemporary psychology’s diverse nature.

The diversity of the APA divisions clearly reflects the changing face of contemporary psychology as well as represents wide subjects of psychological research. They include General Psychology (Division 1), the Study of Social Issues (Division 9), Clinical Psychology (Division 12), Pharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28), Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities (Division 33), Media Psychology (Division 46), International Psychology (Division 52), and Trauma Psychology (Division 56).

Clearly, psychology research topics in the 21st century continue to be diverse and evolving. Whether the research paper deals with a traditional topic or a cutting-edge topic, you will find that it presents the materials in a decidedly contemporary manner. We hope that students will enjoy reading the research papers on different psychology topics as much as we have enjoyed collecting them for you.

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Need a Custom Research Paper?

Classical Conditioning ResearchPaper

This sample Classical Conditioning Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract The simplest associative mechanism, whereby organisms learn to produce new responses to stimuli and learn about relations between stimuli or events, is classical, or Pavlovian, conditioning. In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus, called an unconditioned stimulus (US), that naturally elicits a certain response, called an unconditioned response (UR). After repeated trials, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and evokes the same or a similar response, now called the conditioned response (CR). Most of the concepts presented in this research paper were developed by Pavlov. However, it also examines how original classical conditioning has been modified. Although the basic conditioning paradigm emerged 100 years ago, its comprehension and conceptualization are still developing. Outline From Pavlov to the Present Basic Conditioning Procedure Basic Processes Experimental Procedures Excitatory Conditioning Inhibitory Conditioning What Influences Classical Conditioning? Applications 1. From Pavlov To The Present Russian physiologist I. Pavlov (1849–1936) was one of the pioneers in research on classical conditioning. His investigations, carried out at the end of the 19th century, form the axis of associative learning. Pavlov was interested in the digestive system and, through these studies, he observed that dogs, the subjects of his experiments, anticipated the salivation response when they saw food. Subsequently, Pavlov presented a light or the ticking of a metronome [conditioned stimulus (CS)] for a number of seconds before the delivery of food [unconditioned stimulus (US)]. At first, the animal would show little reaction to the light but, as conditioning progressed, the dog salivated during the CS even when no food was delivered. This response was defined as the conditioned response. Hence, research on classical conditioning began. Soviet psychology has changed in many ways since the death of Pavlov in 1936, and many of these changes brought it closer to American psychology. One way in which the general theory of Pavlovian conditioning developed similarly in the two countries was via the incorporation of cognitive variables. The originally simple Pavlovian paradigm was expanded and reinterpreted through the efforts of many American researchers. American learning theorists developed alternative methods for estimating the strength of the association between a CS and a US. They also identified new Pavlovian phenomena and suggested new explanations of the basic mechanisms underlying the conditioning produced by use of Pavlovian procedures. Although Pavlov’s writings were widely disseminated in the United States, most of the criticism of his ideas was expressed in 1950 by J. A. Konorski in Poland. Konorski and Miller, Polish physiologists, began the first cognitive analysis of classical conditioning, the forerunner of the work by R. A. Rescorla and A. R. Wagner (American psychologists) and A. Dickinson […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Child Testimony Research Paper

This sample Child Testimony Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Since the 1980s, there has been a virtual explosion of studies concerning children’s eyewitness abilities and participation in legal proceedings. The studies, along with considerable public, legal, and legislative attention, were motivated by a number of phenomena. One was a growing awareness of the widespread prevalence of maltreatment, especially child sexual abuse. Large U.S. national surveys revealed that many more individuals were reporting unwanted sexual experiences as children than had been recognized previously, yet few perpetrators were successfully prosecuted criminally. In response, increased efforts were made to identify victims of maltreatment and facilitate the prosecution of perpetrators of crimes against children. A second contributing factor involved revisions in statutes (e.g., competency requirements) that reduced barriers to admitting children’s testimony as evidence in court. By reducing such barriers, the number of child victims/ witnesses becoming involved in legal cases increased dramatically. Unfortunately, little was known about how to elicit accurate information (e.g., about abuse) from children. Legal professionals and scientists, as well as the public, focused on the consequences of failing to identify a victimized child rather than on the potential for false reports of a crime. A third phenomenon during the 1980s, however, altered the public’s and researchers’ focus on false allegations. Specifically, several high-profile legal cases that involved scores of children alleging sexual assault in their day care facilities took place. The children’s allegations included fantastic and impossible claims and often emerged only after the children had been subjected to repeated, highly suggestive interviews. These children’s reports, and the  cases in general, raised serious concerns about the reliability of children’s memory abilities. Questions about how to protect children from harm and ensure that those who commit crimes against children are punished, while at the same time guarding against false allegations of abuse, were brought to the forefront of public, legal, and scientific attention. Research on children’s memory, suggestibility, and false memories, as well as on children’s participation in legal cases, has sought to answer these questions. The present research paper focuses on this research. First, research concerning factors that influence children’s memory accuracy and susceptibility to false suggestions is presented. Second, the effects of participation in legal proceedings on children’s well-being are discussed. Third, a brief overview of new directions in the field is provided. The research paper is limited in scope to findings that are most applicable to legal cases, are particularly well established, and have received considerable attention. It is also limited to discussion of child victims/witnesses. A large and growing body of literature now focuses on child defendants, and it is not possible to review both areas in a single brief research paper. Outline Factors […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Child Development and Culture Research Paper

This sample Child Development and Culture Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Human development occurs in a cultural context. Obvious as this statement may be, its realization in developmental science is far from adequate. Most mainstream research and theory that derives from the Western (particularly American) academic centers and informs the field tends to approach human development in and of its own, without much attention to its cultural aspects. This state of affairs has implications for how child development is construed, how it is assessed, and what is done (if anything) to enhance it. This research paper presents the current knowledge regarding the interface of culture and child development, with the main processes and dynamics involved, and also provides a brief overview of the scholarship on the subject. The main theoretical conceptualizations regarding child development, as well as their implications in significant spheres of applied fields, are reviewed. Outline Study of Child Development in Psychology Development in Context Development of Competence Nature–Nurture Debate and Plasticity Implications for Application Conclusion 1. Study Of Child Development In Psychology A main issue in the psychological study of child development is the scarcity of a contextual approach. The prominence of the mechanistic and organismic models in developmental psychology and the stress on the individual as the unit of analysis have worked as deterrents to contextual conceptualizations of child development. The mechanistic model, used by behaviorism, has construed ‘‘environment’’ in a very limited sense as proximal stimuli. The organismic model has stressed biologically based maturation, ignoring the context of development. These perspectives are of both historical and contemporary influence. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience, genetic research, and the like have further strengthened the ‘‘biological shift.’’ The focus has been on the individual organism as a product of these two major influences—more recently, as a combination of the two. Thus, a vast majority of current psychological research on child development is conducted in the laboratory and does not take the larger cultural context into account. Notwithstanding this state of affairs, there is also a rich tradition of research and thinking in child development, particularly in anthropology, that takes culture seriously. Introducing culture into child development has been done, starting mainly during the second half of the 20th century, first in anthropology and then in ecological, cross-cultural, and cultural psychology. Although this work remained rather marginal for some decades, it is beginning to be better recognized, to increase in volume, and to leave its mark on mainstream research and conceptualizations in developmental psychology. One reason for this changing orientation is the fact that research informed by cultural context is now being done in modern nations, including those in the Western world, rather than in isolated small […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Child Custody Research Paper

This sample Child Custody Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract This research paper begins with a historical overview of the manner in which child placement disputes have been adjudicated and a discussion of the best interests of the child standard. The outline of the factors that psychologists endeavor to assess includes a discussion of the methodological problems inherent in this form of assessment. The significant differences between therapeutic work with families and forensic assessment of families are explained. Because performing custody evaluations requires that psychologists work in a collaborative manner with attorneys and adapt to procedures with which mental health professionals are often unfamiliar, the adjustments that must be made are discussed. The research paper concludes by providing some perspectives on experts offered by two judges. Outline Psychology’s Contribution to Understanding Best Interests Psychological Assessment: What Can We Measure? The Marriage of Clinical Skills and Forensic Precision Dancing with Attorneys without Tripping Following the Rainbow 1. Psychology’s Contribution To Understanding Best Interests The historical context of custody evaluations begins with Roman law and the presumption of paternal preference. Children were viewed as the property of their fathers. A father had absolute power over his children. He was allowed to place his children into slave labor or sell them for profit. A child’s mother had no legal rights. English common law also provided for absolute paternal power. Children were viewed as the property of the father and he had sole discretion over where the children lived, both during the marriage and after a divorce. Mothers had restricted access to their children after divorce. Though the reasoning varied, custodial placement decisions based primarily on generally accepted sex roles were the norm until 1970. In 1813, in deciding on the custodial placement of two children, ages 6 and 10, the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania declared: ‘‘It appears to us, that considering their tender age, they stand in need of that kind of assistance which can be afforded by none so well as a mother’’ [Commonwealth v. Addicks and Lee, 5 Binney’s Rep. 520 (1813), at 521]. At approximately the same time, in Great Britain, what came to be referred to as the tender years doctrine dictated that children younger than age 7 required the care of their mothers. From age 7 on, the custodial responsibility for children would revert back to the father. As the work of fathers began to take them outside the home and as mothers became the primary caretakers, a preference for placement of children with their mothers developed. By the 1920s, a presumption in favor of the mother was clear in most American courts. Comfort with the notion of a maternal preference was buttressed by Freud’s then-popular theory […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Cheating in Sport Research Paper

This sample Cheating in Sport Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Recent research reveals that understanding the achievement goal of a person may help to explain cheating in sport. Achievement goals have dispositional elements as well as situational determinants, and both have been associated with cheating and moral action in sport. The more ego involved the person, the more the person cheats. Reducing cheating may be achieved through coach education and by deemphasizing normative comparisons. Outline Introduction The Context of Sport What Is Cheating? The Motivation to Cheat: Achievement Goals as a Determinant of Moral Action Dispositional Achievement Goals Perceived Motivational Climate and Determinants of Cheating What Can We Do about Cheating? 1. Introduction Cheating in sports is endemic. Each week brings new revelations about cheating, from sprinters who take banned substances (e.g., Dwain Chambers, Carl Lewis, Kelly White) to endurance athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs (e.g., Roberta Jacobs, Richard Virenque, Pamela Chepchumba). But cheating is not limited to individual athletes; prestigious sport organizations have also been caught trying to bend the rules for their own advantage. Some of the most blatant examples of recent cases include the following. Six athletes from the Finnish Ski Federation were discovered to have taken performance-enhancing drugs with the blessing of the medical staff and were disqualified at the Lahti World Cup in 2001. The South Africa, Pakistan, and India cricket teams were found to have fixed matches in 2000. The Welsh Rugby Association recruited illegal players to play for Wales in 2000 by ‘‘discovering’’ fictitious Welsh grandparents for the players. Cyclists on sponsored teams (e.g., the Festina cycling team) in the Tour de France were caught using banned substances in 2001 and 2002. Cheating has even polluted children’s sports, with the most recent visible case being that of Little League pitcher Danny Almonte, who was 14 years of age when he was the winning pitcher for the Little League World Series (restricted to children 9–12 years of age) in 2001. Danny’s father has been indicted for the fraud. At the time of this writing, a huge cheating scandal involving track and field athletes was breaking in the United States. On October 16, 2003, the U.S. AntiDoping Agency (USADA) released a statement describing the discovery of a new ‘‘designer steroid’’ that had been deliberately manufactured by BALCO laboratories in the United States to avoid detection by current testing procedures. The new steroid (tetrahydrogestrinone or THG) was discovered only after a prominent coach sent a syringe containing the substance to the USADA and named several prominent athletes who were using the steroid. The anti-doping laboratory at the University of California, Los Angeles, identified and developed a test for the substance, and the USADA retrospectively […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Cheating in Academics Research Paper

This sample Cheating in Academics Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Cheating in academics refers to actions on the part of students that violate the explicit rules or commonly accepted norms for examinations or assignments. Cheating occurs at all levels, from the primary grades though testing for licensure or certification in a profession. Although most research on the topic of cheating has focused on inappropriate behavior on the part of those who take tests, cheating in academics can also include cheating by those who give tests. Reasonably accurate methods exist for detecting some types of cheating. Many strategies have also been proven to be effective for organizing instruction and assessment so that cheating can be prevented. Outline Introduction Definitions and Examples Cheating and Validity Professional Guidelines on Cheating Detecting Cheating Preventing Cheating 1. Introduction Sound assessment practice involves the development and administration of high-quality instruments and procedures to measure student learning. Assessment instruments can include graded tests and assignments. Information that results from these instruments can be helpful to students themselves or to others who use the information for educational decision making such as teachers, administrators, and policymakers. Increasingly in education contexts, consequences are also associated with performance on assessments. When the associated consequences are relatively serious, the assessment is said to involve high stakes. The stakes associated with an assessment can be serious or mild, and they can be positive or negative. For example, awarding scholarship money to a student who performed at an exceptional level on a college admissions test would be considered a serious positive consequence. Assigning an elementary student to a remedial reading program due to a low test score could be either a positive or a negative consequence, depending on whether or not the remedial program was effective and other factors. Withholding a diploma because a student failed a graduation examination would be a fairly serious negative consequence. As the importance of decision making increases, and as the stakes associated with assessment rise, the problem of cheating becomes more pronounced. Studies of cheating by students indicate that the incidence of the behavior increases as students pass through the grade levels, with the greatest frequency at the high school and college levels. Research evidence indicates that approximately 90% of students admit to having cheated on a test or an assignment, and it is estimated that 3 to 5% of students cheat on a given test or assignment. 2. Definitions And Examples This research paper focuses on the kinds of cheating that occur in classroom situations. Cheating can occur on tests, for example, when one test taker copies test answers from another test taker. Cheating may also occur on assignments, such as on term papers or […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Career Counseling Research Paper

This sample Career Counseling Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Career counseling is ongoing face-to-face interaction performed by individuals who have specialized training in the field to assist people in obtaining a clear understanding of themselves (e.g., interests, skills, values, personality traits) and to obtain an equally clear picture of the world of work so as to make choices that lead to satisfying work lives. Career counselors help clients within the context of a psychological relationship with issues such as making career choices and adjustments, dealing with career transitions, overcoming career barriers, and optimizing clients’ work lives across the life span. Career counselors are cognizant of the many contextual factors present in the lives of their clients and of the ways in which social and emotional issues interplay with career issues. Outline The Evolution of the Definition History of the Field of Career Counseling The Role of Frank Parsons Theories of Career Development Research in Career Counseling 1. The Evolution Of The Definition The current field of career counseling has been referred to by many different terms such as vocational counseling, career guidance, and vocational guidance. In fact, its definition has evolved to meet the changing context and needs of individuals within society. During the early writings about career counseling, it was described as a process of ‘‘matching men and jobs,’’ reflecting the basic function of helping primarily male workers find jobs. As the field progressed, its purview was widened to involve helping both men and women with their career development more broadly and including issues such as decision making, career adjustment, and career change. There have also been refinements of the definition, including an emphasis on career counseling being done over the life span as opposed to an activity primarily restricted to one’s initial job choice. In addition, there has been growing acknowledgment of the intertwined nature of career counseling and social/emotional counseling, with some research indicating that career counseling may help individuals not only with their career adjustment but also with their personal and psychological adjustment. With the growing diversity in society, there has also been particular attention paid to the importance of the cultural context of an individual’s life, including factors such as race/ethnicity, social class, age, ability level, sexual orientation, and religion. Thus, the definition and purview of career counseling continues to be dynamic, addressing the needs of a changing society. 2. History Of The Field Of Career Counseling The origins of career counseling, broadly defined, can be found during early Greek and Roman times, but the roots of the field as is practiced today can be traced to the last half of the 1800s and the early 1900s in the United States. This was […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Bullying and Abuse on School Campuses Research Paper

This sample Bullying and Abuse on School Campuses Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Most adults can remember bullies and victims of bullying from when they were in school. The impact of these events does not stop when students graduate; these events can have long-lasting effects on bullies, victims, and even students who only watched bullying occur. The term bullying refers to a specific type of peer aggression that is intentional, repeated, and involves an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim. Suggestions for intervention approaches at the individual, classroom, and school wide level are provided in this research paper. Outline Introduction What Is Bullying? How Common Is Bullying on School Campuses? Who Are the Bullies? Who Are the Victims? What Are the Effects? What Can Be Done? The Special Role of Bystanders Implications 1. Introduction Bullying in school settings was once thought of as a normal, transient part of growing up. It was considered to have little lasting impact, and the best advice to the victim was to fight back or turn the other cheek. Beginning in the late 1970s and through the 1980s, pioneering research began to shed light on this behavior and to dispel common myths. Expanded studies during the 1990s started to examine bullying as a serious form of aggression and considered the possible impacts of this experience on the bully, his or her victim, and even bystanders. The results of these investigations have shown that not only is bullying a common occurrence but also it has lasting effects on all involved. The pioneer work on bullying was conducted in the mid-1980s by Dan Olweus, a Norwegian psychologist commissioned to conduct a large-scale study on the topic. Norway’s interest in bullying was driven by a string of suicides committed by adolescent boys who had been victims of severe bullying. These efforts were followed by a number of other investigations conducted by researchers in England (Smith), Canada (Peppler), and Australia (Slee, Rigby, and Griffiths). Detailed studies in the United States did not begin to focus seriously on bullying until later, primarily in response to several deadly school shootings that were perpetrated by students who were thought, at least in part, to be seeking revenge for past abuse by school bullies. 2. What Is Bullying? Bullying is defined as aggression between peers that has three essential elements: It is intentional, it is repeated over time, and there is an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim. This definition (developed by Olweus) distinguishes bullying from other types of peer aggression, such as one-time fights or friendly teasing between friends. It is these three defining characteristics that make bullying potentially so damaging. Victims are intimidated […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Boredom Research Paper

This sample Boredom Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Boredom is an unpleasant, short-lived, affective state in which a person feels a pervasive lack of interest in, and difficulty attending to, a task or activity. Despite the absence of a single model or theory to explain boredom at work, research has made some progress on identifying its causes and a wide range of interventions to prevent or alleviate its occurrence. Outline Introduction Definition of Boredom Models of Boredom Measuring Boredom Causes and Correlates of Boredom Consequences of Boredom at Work Prevention and Alleviation of Boredom Conclusion 1. Introduction Interest in boredom at work can be traced to the early 1900s. In 1913, Munsterberg, the father of applied psychology, identified boredom as a valuable area of inquiry in the workplace. The first scientific study, ‘‘The Physical and Mental Effects of Monotony in Modern Industry,’’ was conducted more than a decade later by Davies in 1926. Since these early studies, the research on boredom has been sporadic and fragmented, resulting in a nascent understanding of a construct that is thought to have significant performance outcomes and personal consequences for employers and employees. Smith’s 1981 research paper succinctly summarizes the then—and current—state of research on boredom at work: ‘‘The amount of research devoted to the topic of boredom by psychologists and psychiatrists is astonishingly small when compared to literary treatments and to the acknowledged importance of [boredom at work]’’ (p. 338). Although the focus of this research paper is on boredom at work, it is important to recognize that other areas of applied psychology have also investigated the causes and consequences of boredom, including education, occupational health, ergonomics, military psychology, mental health, and interpersonal relationships. In fact, the recent research on boredom has not been conducted in the domain of work. Much of the recent work has been in the areas of clinical psychology and personality. 2. Definition Of Boredom A single clear definition of boredom has been elusive. Boredom has often been used interchangeably with other related but not identical constructs (monotony, repetitiveness, ennui, and tedium) or its observed or hypothesized phenomenological correlates (fatigue, irritation, depression, dissatisfaction, hopelessness, and stress). Others have approached boredom by focusing on methods of alleviating boredom: novelty, interest, complexity, curiosity, enrichment, and ‘‘flow’’ (i.e., experiences in which people are highly engaged, focused, and able to do well). Progress has been made toward a single definition of boredom, complicated by the fact that differing models or theories of boredom (e.g., psychological, psychophysiological, and motivational) necessarily affect its definition. Commonalities across definitions lead to the working definition of boredom used here, as proposed by Fisher in 1993: ‘‘Boredom is an unpleasant, transient, affective state in which an individual […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •  

Behavioral Observation in Schools Research Paper

This sample Behavioral Observation in Schools Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Abstract Behavioral observation refers to a method of assessment whereby human observers objectively record the ongoing behavior of a person or persons in specific environmental circumstances. Outline Introduction General Methods of Behavioral Observation Measuring and Recording Behavior Systematically Coding Schemes Observational Instruments Summarizing Behavioral Observation Data Reliability and Validity of Behavioral Observation Summary 1. Introduction Direct observation is one of the most widely used individual assessment procedures by school-based professionals. In a survey of more than 1000 school-based professionals, of the 26 different types of individual assessment instruments listed across seven different assessment categories (e.g., aptitude, social–emotional, and personality), behavioral observation methods ranked highest in terms of frequency of use. Overall, respondents indicated that on average they conduct approximately 15 behavioral observations during the course of a typical month. 2. General Methods Of Behavioral Observation When conducting behavioral observations, school based professionals generally rely on one of two basic approaches to gathering information. One form, narrative recording, refers to the observation and collection of information on student behavior in naturally occurring arrangements with little constraints placed on the observer for how and/or what to observe and record. With narrative recording, the observer generally describes the observed situation making notes of specific behaviors as they occur. The method(s) of observation, the type of information noted, and the manner in which the information is summarized are left to the discretion of the observer. The strength of such procedures lies in the flexibility that the observer has in choosing when and how to observe and the minimization of obtrusiveness or reactivity that may occur as a result of the presence of the observer. For interpretative purposes, narrative recording is often used to help develop hypotheses about the various behavioral and environmental factors that may be worthy of further observation and analysis. This flexibility, however, is also one of the main weaknesses of narrative recording. Because the observer has great autonomy in choosing how and what to observe, judgments about the worth of such reports are inextricably bound to the subjective judgments of the observer. As such, it would be highly unlikely for two independent observations collected at the same time to appear identical in the information provided. Therefore, narrative recording is generally best used as a precursor to more specific, objective accounts of behavior. In contrast to narrative recording, systematic direct observation refers to the observation of behavior that is explicitly defined under predetermined settings. Although this approach is also concerned with observing behavior under naturally occurring environmental contexts, the aim is to define beforehand the behaviors of interest, choose specific recording strategies, and have observers record whenever behavior corresponding to […]

Like this post? Share it!
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •  
  •