Harold Lasswell Research Paper

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Harold  Lasswell  was an influential social scientist who contributed  to  the  field  of  political  science through research on  political psychology, quantitative  methods, and  public  policy. Lasswell was born  in  Donnellson, Illinois, to a schoolteacher and Presbyterian minister. At the age of sixteen, Lasswell received a scholarship to study at the University of Chicago, and he later completed graduate studies at the London School of Economics. Lasswell was a faculty member at the University of Chicago from 1922 to 1938 and at Yale University from 1946 to 1970. Lasswell died in 1978 in New York City.

Laswell’s approach to political science was behavioral, and he was a part of the “Chicago school” of sociology. The Chicago school was a group of academicians in the 1920s and 1930s who focused on the urban environment, specifically through  ethnographic  fieldwork  and  an emphasis on social issues. Lasswell believed that propaganda was a key tool in public policy making, arguing that the citizenry was largely uninformed and often did not understand what was in its best interest. Lasswell was one of the first scholars to define and systematically explore the concept of propaganda, through his book Propaganda Technique in World War I (1927).

Lasswell’s work on propaganda later expanded into a more general research agenda on communication. Lasswell contributed to the field by suggesting that more than  one “channel” of media can carry a message. His model of communication is shown through a basic question: “Who says what, in which channel, to whom, and with what effect?” This model identified the several different components of communication in a political sphere: “Who” involved the political body or agency communicating, “what” is the gist of the message or idea, “channel” is the  venue of communication,  “whom” is the  target audience, and “effect” is the policy outcome. His model encouraged systematic thinking about political communication and the psychological and policy implications of different forms of communication. Perhaps Lasswell’s most famous and widely read work is his general treatise on  politics, Politics:  Who Gets  What, When, and How (1936), which is an abridged but more general commentary on his model of communication.

Lasswell’s work shifted in the later stages of his career to more of an emphasis on the policy sciences. Many see him as the father of policy sciences, and his work in that area is certainly among the  first and  most  influential. Lasswell’s research became larger in scope and resulted in policy-making frameworks that were more comprehensive and  less concerned  with  narrow  theorizing. Lasswell’s ideas were rooted  in  his early work on  propaganda— actors in the policy process were seen as sometimes irrational and  pursuing goals that  would ultimately harm them, and this led to a need for policies that went beyond those based in simple rational choice. Lasswell argued that misguided  political  behavior  could  easily undermine democracy, and called attention  to the need for policymakers to consider both expressed and unexpressed constituent needs.

Lasswell argued that the role of the policy sciences was to produce knowledge for democracy. His emphasis on  contextualism  influenced  quantitative  research in important  ways, guiding analysts to  consider as many external influences as possible in their research. Lasswell believed that the role of the analyst was both scientist and activist—the policy analyst cannot be completely objective in selection of goals, but should work toward objectivity in  analysis of  results. Although  some have cast Lasswell as a positivist, his approach had both positivist and postpositivist themes.

Lasswell’s approach to  political science and  public policy was met with some criticism. Many disagree with Lasswell’s assertion that citizens often do not understand what they need, finding his approach to be at once paternalistic and naïve. Some also believe that Lasswell’s view of the policy analyst is a romanticized one, exaggerating the impact that the analyst can have on policy making and ignoring issues with using objective data for political decision-making.

Bibliography:

PRIMARY WORKS

  1. Lasswell, Har [1927] 1971. Propaganda Technique in World War I. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  2. Lasswell, Har [1936] 1966. Politics: Who Gets What, When, and How. New Haven, CT: Meridian Books.
  3. Lasswell, Har [1948] 1976. Power and Personality. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

SECONDARY WORKS

  1. Ascher, William, Barbara Hirschfelder-Ascher. Linking Lasswell’s Political Psychology and the Policy Sciences. Policy Sciences 37 (1), 23–36.
  2. Bell, W 1993. H. D. Lasswell and the Futures Field: Facts, Predictions, Values, and the Policy Sciences. Futures 25 (8): 806.
  3. Farr, James, Jacob Hacker, Nicole Kazee. 2006. The Policy Scientist of Democracy: The Discipline of Harold D. Lasswell. American Political Science Review 100 (4), 579–587.

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