Multilingual In Global Web Sites Research Paper

This sample Multilingual In Global Web Sites Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. In the information age represented by the Internet and the World Wide Web, the language representation online has evolved from the monolinguality of one English language into the multilinguality of more than 1,000 languages (Crystal, 2001). As a natural outcome, multilingual Web sites have become a common ground for online communication for peoples across national boundaries. On the Internet, Web users spend more time and come back more often to the Web sites that are in their native language and appeal to their cultural sensibilities. Visitors to a Web site would stay twice as long if the content on the Web site were available in their own language. Their willingness to buy something online increases by at least four times if the Web site is localized to meet their needs to thoroughly research the product and the company. (DePalma, 2006; Enos, 2001; Schreiber Translations, 2007; WorldLingo, 2006). According to an Internet Executive ePanel done by International Data Corporation (IDC) in 2000, adding multilingual capability to a company’s Web site significantly increases global e-commerce revenue up to three times (Parr & McManus, 2000). Additionally, the statistics provided by Internet World Stats, an international Web site specializing in Internet usage and population statistics from 233 countries and regions, show that between the years of 2000 and 2007, Internet usage has increased 248.8% in Asia, 638.4% in Africa, 491.4% in the Middle East, and 433.4% in Latin America and the Caribbean (2007a). With such a steady and rapidly growing non-English-speaking population on the Internet, multilingual Web sites have become an important phenomenon that involves issues of language, culture, and technology. This growing population continues to create new challenges for multilingual communication in global e-commerce. Therefore, we need to make sure that the Internet as a multilingual community will allow every individual, every culture, every language, and every technology to contribute to and benefit from such a multilingual online world. This research-paper has provided an in-depth discussion on some interesting aspects of multilingual issues in global e-commerce Web sites, focusing on the main challenges and major solutions. Practical recommendations will be also discussed in detail. All of these would lead to a better understanding of multilingual issues in global e-commerce Web sites, so that (a) the obstacles created by language barriers could be removed, (b) the misunderstandings brought by cultural differences would be avoided, and (c) the problems caused by technological difficulties could be solved. This research-paper discusses multilingual issues in global e-commerce Web sites, focusing on the major challenges and main solutions. Future trends are also outlined for multilingual Web sites in global e-commerce. Internet: From Monolingual To Multilingual At […]

Information Privacy In Organizations Research Paper

This sample Information Privacy In Organizations Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. With descriptives like “the information age,” “the information super highway,” and “the knowledge economy”—popular in the mainstream business literature at the start of the 21st century—there can be little doubt that information plays a vital role in the success of any organization. Employees often are required to sign nondisclosure agreements upon entry into an organization wherein they vow that they will not divulge proprietary company information to outsiders. Such safeguards seem reasonable and are becoming necessary for organizations interested in protecting their assets—specifically, their intellectual assets—from getting into the hands of competitors or other entities that could misuse that information. Information is a broad concept, however, and the need for organizations to acquire and subsequently protect information is not limited to patents, “know how,” organizational routines and technologies, and other intellectual property. Organizations also have a need to acquire and protect information about human assets, that is, their employees—the very people who will be entrusted to help the organization succeed. The gathering of employee personal information is dramatically on the rise and the mechanisms through which information is gathered are diverse and controversial. Organizations have to be careful about how they gather and protect information, because as they attempt to gather personal information through various means, there is the potential to impinge on employees’ sense of information privacy. Information privacy is defined as an employee’s belief in his or her ability to control information about him- or herself and his or her resulting ability to act autonomously—free from the control of others (Stone & Stone, 1990). Information privacy, therefore, reflects an important psychological state influenced jointly by an organization’s need to collect personal information on one hand and an individual employee’s desire to maintain control over his or her personal information on the other hand. This constant tension between the organization and the individual over personal information also suggests that information privacy is part of dialectic process or struggle. In his 1975 book, The Environment and Social Behavior, Altman argued that privacy represents a boundary-regulation process wherein individuals regulate their interpersonal boundaries with each individual varying in both desire for openness and closedness and ability to reach desired levels of openness and closedness. These needs parallel similar needs in the general psychology literature, including the need for affiliation or belonging and the need for distinctiveness. There are times in one’s work life, for example, where one wishes to close oneself off from others or to be separate or distinct (e.g., shutting the door to one’s office; not answering phone calls). To the extent that people can achieve their desired level of closedness, privacy is maintained. Similarly, there may […]

Monitoring PWU in the Workplace Research Paper

This sample Monitoring PWU in the Workplace Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Technology has transformed the workplace. Since the inception of the Internet, the benefits for organizations and its stakeholders have altered the way work is conducted, managed, and controlled. From service delivery and quality control to alternative communication channels, the Internet has and will continue to impact organizations on many levels. The steady growth of personal Web usage (PWU) at work (Mahatanankoon, Anandarajan, & Igbaria, 2004), for example, has become particularly interesting and relevant to scholars and practitioners in management and organization studies. With its presence at the center of operations inside organizations, the Internet has resulted in a number of by-products, including PWU. Also known as “cyberloafing,” many scholars and practitioners contend that this has become the new form of workplace misbehavior. In the past, managers were once concerned with personal telephone calls, water-cooler chat, or other types of shirking behavior that were believed to have adverse effects on productivity. The savvy computer users of the new generation are now able to engage in personal work at work in a more immediate and perceived private fashion using the Internet for e-mail, instant messaging, social networking, and blogging. Growing up in the age of cell phones, text messaging, and digital audio and video technologies, many from this new generation expect Internet availability and continuous connectivity at home and at work. In many cases, the meshing of work and personal lives has created an environment where Internet use is a tacit necessity. These expectations present significant challenges for managers and leaders now and in the coming years and decades. For example, the potential network security, legal, and fiduciary vulnerabilities associated with some forms of PWU place the organization at considerable risk. While PWU is a tool for users to bridge their personal and professional worlds, organizations are now taking action to curb such behavior, including the use of policy and surveillance technologies. Given that many organizations define PWU as rule breaking or misbehavior, it is not surprising to find that decision makers are utilizing electronic monitoring systems to observe and control this particular behavior. While the technology is new, the assumptions underlying the use of monitoring in the workplace reflect the thinking of management practitioners and scholars from the beginning of the last century, including the father of modern management, Frederick Taylor. From the shop floor to the cubicle, individual agents have been labeled as self-interested, rational actors whose behavior must be controlled by the principal (i.e., the organization) to ensure compliance to the organizational agenda. In response to management action, studies (e.g., Lim, 2002) have shown that employees often view monitoring as intrusive, invasive, and a symbol of distrust. […]

Employee Telework Research Paper

This sample Employee Telework Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Telework is an increasingly popular form of 21st-century work in which individuals carry out their jobs away from the central company office using computer technology. Due to telework’s dramatically increasing popularity, researchers have begun to devote greater attention to understanding telework and the implications this new form of work has on individuals and organizations. This research-paper is therefore devoted to providing an overview of telework research and the inherent trade-offs employees and managers must consider when making decisions about telework. After a brief review of the factors influencing telework’s growth and the forms of telework, the research-paper will summarize important research findings for telework’s positive and negative impacts on employees and the organization. Each of these areas will incorporate important findings from prior telework research. Then, several key areas of emerging research will be reviewed, which promise to shed important insights into our understanding of telework’s implications. The research-paper will conclude with a discussion of crucial implementation challenges for the employee and organization and suggestions for helping to improve telework success. Factors Influencing Telework’s Growth Telework has been experiencing tremendous growth in recent years, and this trend is projected to continue at even higher rates in the years to come. With its popularity more than doubling in a 2-year period, the growth in telework is occurring globally, including much of Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States. A number of factors have combined to fuel this explosive growth. First, companies are responding to employee needs for greater capability in dealing with increased family demands, as the number of dual-career and single-parent households continues to grow. Moreover, employees are demanding greater flexibility to accommodate leisure activities and to be able to work independent of location. Companies tend to view telework as a tool to help attract and retain talented employees, who might otherwise be less satisfied with their work and have a higher tendency to leave the organization. Companies also look upon telework as a means to reduce the costs of office space, since employees who do not work in the office full time need less office space. Computer technology has also made telework increasingly convenient and cost effective. Such technology has enabled reliable and robust remote access to corporate databases, flexibility in remote communication, and easy and convenient tools for interacting with others from a distance. Finally, following tragic and horrifying terrorist events, individuals and companies have begun to look at telework as a means to ensure business continuity by providing a means for employees to remain working and productive if the office space or travel is disrupted. Together, these factors have combined to produce unprecedented increases in telework as […]

Virtual Work Research Paper

This sample Virtual Work Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The distribution and mobilization of activities in the corporate value chain has increased dramatically over the last decade and will continue to do so as these organizations seek to reduce costs, get closer to their customers, ally themselves with other companies, and engage the best talent, wherever it may be. Working In Multiple Places Two Examples: Global Sales Force and Local Maintenance Workers A Global Sales Force A sales force is marketing tailored product and system packages in developing countries. The manager has seven local workers and five others in China, Russia, Singapore, India, and the United States. The U.S. representative is responsible for activities in Africa. In addition, every 2 to 3 months an extended steering group, also including product managers, has its meeting. The meetings are supposed to be face-to-face, but often, customer appointments make this impossible, and virtual meetings and call conferences are used instead for communication and decision making. Employees consider the distribution of their working locations, asynchronous ways of working, and the diversity of the people they meet to be the main complexity factors in their work (see Figure 84.1). They fly to their working destinations, passing through several time zones. Locally, they also use cars and trains. For example, one of the employees described his trips as follows: I have around 80 travel days yearly. I often go to Latin America. Usually I go there twice a month, each trip lasting around one week. In addition I go to China, Indonesia, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam. We typically have trade shows where I meet local clients. Usually during a week I try to focus my work so that for example I visit four countries and cities during the same trip: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. A one-day visit to each to meet the local account team in the morning and to visit customers in the afternoon. When traveling, they work in the company’s local office, at customers’ premises, in conference venues, and in hotels. The purpose of moving is twofold: first, to meet and cowork with their own local teams, and second, working with customers to promote product sales. Diverse actors such as media people, local politicians, researchers, and company people are met. This brings with it various cultural, religious, and individual influences on the ways and contents of communication. Working times are a challenge. For example, an employee may start to work at 3:00 a.m. local time in order to be able to have a joint call conference with colleagues in Europe. And while working at home, he may participate in a virtual meeting at 9:00 p.m. in order to have a joint meeting […]

Knowledge Management Research Paper

This sample Knowledge Management Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality research paper on any topic at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Knowledge management (KM) is a hot topic in many business communities. Although, the title knowledge management might suggest a rather simple definition, there are plenty of opinions as to what it is and how it should be used, if used at all. However, because of the ever increasing pace of business development, the task of effective and competitive management of organizations becomes essential and KM, if understood and implemented properly, may be a useful tool for business transformation as well as the key to competitive advantage. This research-paper presents an overview of KM including knowledge, knowledge management systems (KMS) communities of practice, knowledge transfer, and KM technologies and of how KM is utilized in organizational initiatives. Knowledge Davenport and Prusak (1998) viewed knowledge as an evolving mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. They found that in organizations, knowledge often becomes embedded in documents or repositories and in organizational routines, processes, practices, and norms. They also say that for knowledge to have value it must include the human additions of context, culture, experience, and interpretation. Nonaka (1994) expanded this view by stating that knowledge is about meaning in the sense that it is context specific. This implies that users of knowledge must understand and have experience with the context, or surrounding conditions and influences, in which the knowledge is generated and used for it to have meaning to them. This also implies that for a knowledge repository to be useful it must also store the context in which the knowledge was generated. That knowledge is context specific argues against the idea that knowledge can be applied universally; however, it does not argue against the concept of organizational knowledge. Organizational knowledge is considered an integral component of what organizational members remember and use meaning that knowledge is actionable. Polanyi (1967) and Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) described two types of knowledge, tacit, and explicit. Tacit knowledge is that which is understood within a knower’s mind and which cannot be directly expressed by data or knowledge representations and is commonly understood as unstructured knowledge. Explicit knowledge on the other hand is that knowledge which can be directly expressed by knowledge representations and is commonly known as structured knowledge. Knowledge transfer in an organization occurs when members of an organization pass tacit and explicit knowledge to each other. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) proposed four modes of knowledge creation and transfer. Socialization is the process of sharing experiences and, thereby, of creating tacit knowledge such as mental models and technical skills. Tacit knowledge can be obtained without using language through […]